Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
... Pakistani livestock population during 2011 and 2012. To ascertain the genetic nature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indi...

Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...t-align: justify;">The relationship between science, religion, and culture has been a subject of profound interest for philosophers, scientists, theologians, and cultural historians for centuries. In fact, as far back as the ancient Greeks, when Thales of Miletus and other pre-Socratic philosophers began to offer scientific explanations of the natural world, questions about the relationshi...

Victor J. Stenger

Science, Religion and Culture
... treatises. They are popular books addressed to a public that is becoming increasingly disenchanted with organized religion and its negative influence on society. The new approach takes a harder line in criticizing religion than was previously the case amongst secularists. The new atheists question whether faith, which is belief despite the absence of evidence or even in the presence of contrary evidence, has any moral or in...

Keith Ward

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...d ‘Why this particular set of laws and not some other?’ (p. 19). In his book he proposes to answer those questions, from a purely scientific point of view (‘Philosophy is dead’, he announces on p. 13, even though the whole book is an exercise in scientifically informed philosophy). But there is something very odd about this. Nowhere in the book does he mention consciousness, value, or thought. In fact...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
... Pakistani livestock population during 2011 and 2012. To ascertain the genetic nature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene ind...

Francisco J. Ayala and John C. Avise (eds.)
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 547 pp., $47.64 (hbk),
ISBN 1421413051.

Reviewed by David Pindel

 

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ustify;">This book is Ayala and Avise’s attempt to address a serious oversight in the scientific literature – no volume of essential readings in evolutionary biology exists, despite the fact that evolution remains central to and is the unifying principle of the biological sciences. To remedy this, they have put together an impressive collection of classical papers, encompassing virtually all aspects of evolutiona...

John Shook

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...xploring unbelief and explaining its reasonableness. Scientific atheology specifically appeals to current sciences and scientific methodologies to help explain why no gods are real. Folk religions and anthropomorphic gods can’t survive, but science vs. religion is hardly the whole story. Only science joined by philosophical reflection suffices to skeptically analyze the natural theology arguments for supernatural gods,...

Ruse, Michael, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, The University of Chicago Press, 2013, 251 pp, $26.00, ISBN 978-0-226-73170-4

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ry David Thoreau, particularly Civil Disobedience (1849) and Walden (1854). Respectively, Thoreau’s well-reasoned politics and his keen observations of the natural world appealed to my hormone-driven defiance and pacified my unruliness. I thought I knew my Thoreau.

 

...

Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...e modern sciences, the relations between faith and reason and religion and science, the role of religion in supporting our moral convictions, the reliability of the biblical accounts of Jesus’ life, and the problems posed by biblical endorsements of slavery and genocide. No review could do justice to so wide a range of issues, so my aim here is simply to offer some general reflections on the strategies employed.

...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...ects of their study. Scholars that approach religion as an object fit only for analysis discover in it a model of an objectified universe; and those that assume a universe subject only to natural law find in the religions that they study worlds devoid of others–sterile worlds populated only by selves incapable of meaningful relationships. The essay...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...n rural areas.

...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
... Pakistani livestock population during 2011 and 2012. To ascertain the genetic nature of circulating FMD virus, samples were collected from suspected outbreaks in Southern Punjab. The virus was primarily detected with RT-PCR with P1/P2 and 1F/1R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indi...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...while, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indicating resistance to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and humans in Egypt, and suggest possible options to cont...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...rief summary about molecular and epidemiology characterizations of Chinese Aichivirus C strains. Mutiple Aichivirus C strains and Aichivirus C variants are circulating in China. Recombination events were also observed in Chinese Aichivirus C strains. More further studies are needed to clarify the evolutionary features and pathogenicity of Aichivirus C.

 

...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...sts, for example, by and large employ an instrumentalist approach to the study of the laws of nature. Their aim is to deal, not with things in themselves (the Kantian noumena) but with their empirical manifestation (Kantian phenomena) via tentative hypotheses subject to empirical verification. In the humanities, there is deep suspicion of so-called “meta-narratives” that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
... by his contemporary scholars, particularly by theologians and religious authors? That is the subject of the thoroughly researched and elegantly written book by David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution.

...

Reviewed by David Svolba, Fitchburg State University, USA email: dsvolba@fitchburgstate.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
... exempting citizens from laws that compel them to act in ways their religions forbid, or that forbid them from acting in ways their religions require. According to Brian Leiter, religious tolerance, in this sense, is prima facie morally justified.1 It is prima facie morally justified because religion is a source of claims of conscience, and liberty of conscience is supported on both broadly Kantian and utilitarian grounds. P...

Reviewed by John Shook, University at Buffalo, USA; Email: jshook@pragmatism.org

Science, Religion and Culture
...f the most prominent scholars across the humanities and sciences the same five ques- tions about science and religion, what would you ask? This opportunity came to philosopher Gregg D. Ca- ruso, thanks to a publisher whose “5 Questions” series is permitting readers to examine direct answers on all sorts of topics from today’s premier public intellectu- als. Reading the answers about science and religion in this volume is consistently informat...

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...faith, which Boghossian claims is “pretending to know things one doesn’t know.”

...

Stephen Kershnar

...central ideas. In particular, I argue that Metz fails to show that there is meaning in life and that, even if there is, his theory likely fails to capture it.

...

H. Bruce Rinker

...e of modern science that later accelerated especially with the emergence of ecology and evolutionary thinking. However, the strict determinism and mechanistic assumptions inherent in the physical sciences delayed unification and, thereby, contributed inadvertently to the present-day scourges of fragmentation such as human-accelerated climate change and biodepletion. A philosophia prima is now required to repair and reunite h...

Mark Zelcer

...ishing of numer- ous popular science textbooks in Yiddish, like Z. P. Nathans’ Populere erḳlerung fun Aynshṭayn’s relaṭiṿiṭeṭ ṭeorye (Popular Explanations of Einstein’s Theory of Rel- ativity) and Yiddish translations of scientific cla...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...out the year seasonally claiming several lives. IL-6/IL-2 receptors have been identified as crucial mediators for clearance of influenza by up regulating several intracellular defense mechanisms. Associated with IL-6 signalling is the expression acceleration of sequestrome 1(SQSTM1) / aggrosome and colocalization of HDAC6 to the cytoplasm. The key p

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...ic diversity of the circulating strains.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

..., which has been in circulation for two decades, has become the predominant subtype in China, attracting considerable attention due to human infections and the contribution of internal genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Multiple H9N2 AIV genotypes have been identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 i...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

.... However, HIV Tat also plays immunoregulation roles in improving immune responses of vaccines. Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior potential of Tat as immunoregula

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

... applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applications not only in biosensors, but also in other areas such as diagnostics, biomarker discovery, drug delivery, bio-imaging and molecular therapy. In this review we have summarized recent advancements and applications of aptamers in biology.

...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...nucleic acid-based molecular recognition elements, are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

...efore be useful as molecular tools and also as novel therapeutic agents. This commentary describes RNA aptamers selected to bind to the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics.

...

Justin P. McBrayer

...od, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences between those who believe in God verses those who do...

Mark Zelcer

...d religion written for a lay audience. Comprised of five loosely connected chapters dealing with a plethora of interesting themes, the book is principally a polemic against inserting metaphysical assumptions into mathematics, science, and religion. The book focuses on the metaphysical worldviews of philosophers, scientists, mathematicians, and religious thinkers. Though for reasons I elaborate on la<...

Justin P. McBrayer

...od, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences between those who believe in God verses those who do...

Bruce L. Gordon

...ost common view of the relationship between science and Scripture held in the evangelical community and, unfortunately but understandably, the view of science most non-Christians associate with evangelicalism. For scientifically literate non-Christians, it presents an obstacle to Christian faith, and for young Christians who have been raised to equate YEC with the teaching of Scripture, it can destroy their faith altogether when its falsity is discovered. With...

Michael R. Molnar

... suspicions that some explanations may have taken liberties to support religious beliefs. That idea is central to one of the more recent publications on this subject. Aaron Adair promotes his book, “The Star of Bethlehem: A Skeptical View,” with the claim that no one can ex- plain the Star. The Star, he says, has no historical basis nor can it even be exp<...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

... revealed a potential explanation for some of this confusion – namely, that ICP0 has important functions in the cytoplasm that have been generally disregarded, due to the fact that many frequently used experimental manipulations restrict this protein to the nucleus. This commentary discusses the significance of these findings to the ICP0 field.

...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

... through deliberate inoculation with a particular virus strain or bacterial species and being maintained free of unwanted microbiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regu

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...cal disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nas...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

... the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infectio...

Gregg D. Caruso

...is destined to become a classic and is essential reading for anyone interested in free will and moral responsibility.

...

John Martin Fischer

...s it sounds.” Similarly, Derk Pereboom has convinced most of us working in this field that moral responsibility skepticism, at least of his kind, is not as bad as it sounds. Indeed, through his important work culminating (thus far) in this significant book, he has convinced me that the view is subtle, very plausible, and even deeply attractive. Whereas there are other forms of moral responsibility skepticism on the ...

Dana Kay Nelkin

...nal issues. The main pillars of the account remain, including incompatibilism between free will and determinism, skepticism about free will on a combination of conceptual and empirical grounds, and the thesis that life on the assumption that we do not have free will can be meaningful and perhaps even better in certain important respects than life on the assumption that we have it. At the same time, there are some subtle shifts in particu

Derk Pereboom

...y treatment of the manipulation argument in Chapter 4. Fischer’s core strategy for resisting this argument is (at least initially) a soft-line reply. Soft-liners claim that in some manipulation cases the agent is not morally responsible, and in others he is. A corollary of the soft-line reply is that there is a pla

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...uctural 1 (NS1) protein plays a crucial role in moderating the virulence of influenza virus by multiple mechanisms. Due to C-terminal ‘tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in d...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...nts are influenced by tillage and time of nitrogen application as well as soil type and cropping system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of spring wheat seeded in three tillage systems viz., zero (ZT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) to split application of N fertilizer [50 kg N at sowing + 100 kg N ha-1 at fi...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...f legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e. mungbean, cowpea and sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 90, 120, 150 kg ha-1 to subsequent maize crop. Biochar significantly enhanced plant height and grain yield. T...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

...y response to different planting times. The variety Sadori exhibited higher values for most of the traits like sympodial branches plant-1 (14.28), seed cotton yield plant-1 (51.04g), seed cotton yield (2223kgha-1), ginning out turn (36.8%), seed index (7.4 g), and seed germination (58.5 %) as compared to other varieties. The normal (1st May sown crop) sowing showed significantly highest va...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

... higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving soil quality and enhancing spinach growth and ...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

... influence of different planting dates and media on the growth of kiwi (cv. Hayward) cuttings at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Mingora Swat, during 2011. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement in three replications. Planting Dates (20th Jan, 30th Jan, 10th Feb, 20th Feb and 2nd March) were allocated to main plots, whereas s...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...es were conducted in the laboratory to assess the effects of Helicoverpa armigera nu- cleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV) applied to eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olive, on emergence of and para- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the viru...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...hastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to ascertain the level of technical efficiency. The econometric computer software STATA was applied for the estimation. The estimated value of technical efficiency ranges from 34 to 88 per cent for the farms in the sample, with an average of 62 per cent. This means that if the average farmer in the sample was to achieve the technical efficiency level of its most efficient counterpart, then the average farmer cou...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...ighest number of leaves plant-1 (75.25) and yield (49.25 t ha-1) were gained by Falcon in 50-50 treatment during, 2010. However, the plant height (134 cm) and fruit size (147.1 cm3) were higher at 25-75 and 75-25 treatment, respec- tively. Whereas, the less number of leaves plant-1 (15), plant height (28.25 cm), fruit size (92.3 cm3) and tomato yield (7....

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...expenditure and quality elasticities for five vegetables namely potato, onion, tomato, cabbage & cauliflower and peas, mostly consumed in Pakistan. A comparison of quality elasticity between urban and rural households is provided using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...of supply greatly helps planners and policy makers to allocate and achieve production targets and in longer term planning. A study was conducted during 2009-10 with an objective to estimate the wheat yield response function in two agro-ecological zones in Punjab. The method of ordinary least square was used. Time series data for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and clim...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

...ss the ageing effect of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) lined watercourses on conveyance losses/efficiency in district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kash- mir. Three watercourses namely, Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were selected randomly on aging basis. Watercourses Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were constructed in 2000, 2006-07 and 2011, respectively. Conveyance losses in the selected watercourses were determined by inflow-outflow method, wherein the flow velocity w...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...ina). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among maize hybrids for all the traits. The hybrid un44052 x DK took minimum days to tasseling (65.83 days) and silking (68.50 days). Hybrid zp-707 x un 44052 was short statured (155.59 cm) with desirable ear height of 62.93 cm. However, maximum leaf area produced by hybrid DK x Hs in both locations with ...

Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

...cities by rejecting the claim that extremism and terror are not aspects of Islamic history. To declare, as even French president Francois Hollande did, “these terrorists and fanatics... have nothing to do with the Muslim religion” is inaccurate.

...

Hussein Rashid

...f Muhammad printed in Jyllands-Postens, a Danish newspaper, in 2005. In addition, the release of a You- Tube film in 2011 called Innocence of Muslims is often cited as a proximate cause of an attack on a US consulate in Benghazi, Libya. This narrative sets up an easily understood conflict between Islam and free speech.

...

Massimo Pigliucci, K.D.

...arlie Hebdo, which took place on 7 January 2015. Some of the commentary has been insightful, some full of pious platitudes about defense of free speech by sources with not exactly a stellar record in that department, and some of it has ranged from the woefully uninformed to the downright awful. It is, therefore, with some recalcitrance that I write these lines, particu

John Teehan

...e again, the threat of Islamic radicalism to the foreground of public consciousness. Such attacks, of course, raise vital questions of public safety and the costs we are willing to pay for that safety. They also raise questions of how to understand the complex conditions that give rise to such events and the conditions for such events are always complex, even when facile “explanations” are readily avai

Ozgur Koca

... the use of violence escalates among certain human collectivities. At this point in history particularly Muslims appear to be subject to this problem as evinced by the emergence of many militant and terrorist organizations like al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko Haram and the escalation of sectarian violence between the Shi’a and the Sunnis in Iraq and Syria.

...

Michael Shermer

... quiz: What did the assailants shout after murder- ing 17 people in Paris in January, 2015, including edi- tors and cartoonists of the satirical publication Charlie Hebdo?


A. “Moses rocks!”
B. “Jesus saves!”
C. “Vishnu lives!”
D. “Buddha avenged!” E. “Atheists rule!”
F. “Allahu Akbar!”

...

Lawrence Krauss

...rotests throughout the Islamic world to the bittersweet cover published the week following that tragedy.

...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...ir own people, the most glaring instance was in post-Revolutionary France during the Reign of Terror. On the other hand disgruntled, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and B

Frank Griffel

...ish supermarket two days later, yet another Western country asked itself why do they attack us? Why do they hate us? France experiences a moment of bewilderment and soul-searching similar to the one the US went through after the attacks of September 2001 and to what took place in Britain after July 5, 2005. The gut-reaction of nations struck by such horrific acts of terrorism is to say: We...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008. In 2011, the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of this study was to perform molecu

Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...ducted in Abbottabad - Balakot tract of the northern Pakistan for testing the effectiveness of groundnut – maize grain bait in delivering the lethal amount of strychnine alkaloid in controlling the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, during 2006-07. Indian crested porcupine is a severe forest and agricultural pest throughout southern Asia and the Middle East, including Pakistan. The results suggested that in case of pre-baiting trial, a 25% reducti...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...unters cylinder-powered platen printing machines, the telegraph, the steam ships and railways—all coming from countries dimly perceived and barely understood. These fruits of modern science are accompanied by a host of ideas about the emergence and propagation of life on earth which, to the lay believer, seemed outright un-Godly. Marwa Elshakry, now an Associate Professor of History at Columbia University, explores the...

Thomas J. Coleman III

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, Pages 39-41
...ecifically, who gets to claim both the man and his theory in support of their ideological worldview? If you were like me, at first glance this would be an obvious answer: godless naturalism intertwined with the “New Atheism” of the Richard Dawkins’s and Sam Harris’s of the world gets to lay claim to the man and his ideas, or at le...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...of the world’s population is infected with the virus. Patients in hemodialysis units have an increased risk for contracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patie...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Salman2, Shah Alam Khan2, Alamzeb1, Inamullah Khan1

 

...align: justify; ">Peach flat-headed borer, Sphenoptera dadkhani (Oben.) is the major insect-pest of stone fruit orchards. Survey of three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa revealed the highest mean infestation in plum orchards of district Peshawar (89.60%), followed by Nowshera (75.79%) and Swat (45.42%). In peach orchards, highest mean infestation was recorded in Peshawar (88.33%), followed by Nowshera (72.77%) and Swat (53.72%). The mean infestation o...

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

...rus. Two multiplex molecular detection methods provide the understanding of the genetic diversities among viroid isolates and quantify viroids in citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relationships and develop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Cropping systems were kept in vertical blocks and fertility treatments in horizontal blocks replicated thrice with RCBD strip block system. Sole mungbean and intercropped mungbean with maize were treated with five fertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha-1) + inoculation, T3, (120-80-60 NPK kg ha-1); T4, poultry manure (PM) @ 15 t ha-1 and half PM+...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...l muscle constitutes the largest soft tissue mass in the body whose principal roles are postural maintenance and locomotion. Comprising heterogeneous multi-nucleated fibres, skeletal muscle is one of more astounding and unusual tissues in the body in its ability to undergo dramatic phenotypic changes in response to physical demands, age and disease. The contributions of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Re...

Galina N. Leonova1*, Ilya G. Kondratov2, Sergei I. Belikov2

 

... the Russian Far East isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one strain was isolated from the blood of a person after a tick bite. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains are related to LI/A and LI/K strains isolated in England and Scotland.

 

...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

... responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many countries of Asian and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innat...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...its and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and qualit...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...ut also on the stage of plant growth at which it develops. A pot study was conducted during 2011-12 at College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, to assess the effect of induced water stress on performance of different wheat varieties at critical growth stages. Three wheat varieties viz. Faisalabad-2008, Lasani-2008 and Kohistan-97 were manually sown in polythene lined pots. Five water stress treatments were created by withhol...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...domly picked up from available stock and then placed into 108 experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed intake (g) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were calculated during the study period. Data were analysed by ANOVA technique and means were compared by using DMR test. The results of ...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...iculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of credit in district Jhang. This study is based on primary data collected in 2013 f...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...n taken seriously by scholars in historical linguistics, but what are regarded by some as problematic aspects of the account may actually relate to claims that have been incorrectly attributed to the account. In fact, the account may not be reporting a sudden and immediate confusion of languages, or even a sequence in which a confusion of

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...he dietary responses of flaxseed on the meat of rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups: T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that co...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...g 2007-2009. Lentil was planted in winter and during summer sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and mung bean (vigna radiata) followed lentil. Five different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, NPK 35-40-20 kg ha-1, poultry manure 20 tons ha-1, compost (press mud) 12.5 tons ha-1 and inoculation by phosphorus mobilizing microorganisms 2.5 packets ha-1, in...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...ntly being used to manipulate pathogenicity and immunity and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...tiviral innate immunity plays a central role at the early stage of viral life cycles. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces patho...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...cation (NASBA) and molecular beacon technique. Recently there have been two major progresses in the field, in which RT-NASBA technique was applied for the detection of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Huaichang Sun

...le RNA viruses in particular.

...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...e been intensely debated lately. This article aims to sum up what is known about positive and negative effects of the drug. The available data suggests that oseltamivir treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients shortens influenza symptoms with approximately 24 hours, and increases nausea and vomiting by 3-5%. Whether oseltamivir treatment has an effect on the frequency of influenza complications or n...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...dae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.), potato (Sola...

David Kyle Johnson

...align: justify;">If one claims that some religious belief is justified by the occurrence of a miracle, that religious belief is justified only if the belief that the miracle occurred is justified. Hume famously argued that testimony cannot justify belief in the miraculous (and thus also cannot justify religious belief), but I will argue that nothing can justify the belief that a miracle has occurred—not even seeing a miracle for oneself. To establish thi...

Khalid Usman1*, Niamatullah Khan2, Fazal Yazdan3

...owing to more bolls per plant (37.2), boll weight (3.4 g) plus higher ginning out turn (39.9%) compared to the standard varieties of cotton in Pakistan. The quality characteristics such as fibre length (29.2 mm), strength (28.5 g tex-1), micronaire (4.3µg inch–1) and uniformity (80.2%) were also higher for DNH-105 than other varieties. Ginning out turn ranged from 37.2 (CIM-612) to 39.9% (DNH-105). Fibre length ranged from a low of 28.3 (CIM-612) t...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...armers should be put in place. Farmers should also be enlightened in order to create awareness as to their rights as clientele in the extension process. 

...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...0 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extract from the fermentation filtrate with LC50 value 25.03 μg mL-1. The mycelial extract with LC50 (29.9...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...ariety with the highest plant height (6.5 cm), number of nodes (8.8), fresh shoot weight plant-1 (0.166 g), number of roots (4.6) and root length (2.5 cm) at 60 mM NaCl followed by Sh-5. Desiree and Cardinal were moderately tolerant varieties to NaCl stress. The most sensitive variety Asterix produced minimum plant height (2.7 cm), number of nodes (2.4), number of roots (2.6), root length...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

... the country’s population and the largest grain crop as well. Pakistan has been regularly importing wheat, except for the few years. Wheat’s domestic production has remained short of its domestic demands. To estimate the wheat varietal effect on wheat production and technical efficiency, a Cobb-Douglas Translog frontier analysis has been done...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...nalysis of the soil and plant samples were recorded. The application of organic sources of farmyard manure and poultry manure in combination with inorganic NPK fertilizers had shown positive effect on chickpea plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and seed index. The growth and yield of chickpea significantly increased with th...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...ical traits. Simple correlation coefficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf ...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...0 years research and scholarship on secularity in general, and atheism in particular, has increased significantly. Moreover, these phenomena have been researched, studied and documented by multiple disciplines ranging from cognitive science to religious studies, and from anthropology to sociology. The study of atheism and secularity is of high interest t...

Jonathan Jong

...earch on religion (and related phenomena, including nonreligion, atheism, and secularity) is invariably prefaced by sheepish attempts to define these terms, followed by apologies for the inevitable inadequacy of the proposed definitions. This paper argues that scholars of religion and nonreligion should accept the fact that “religion” and “nonreligion” are, like all...

Ethan G. Quillen

...Atheism has grown in popularity, leading to both positive and negative results. On one end, this has engendered a polyvocal and polyfocal discourse, garnering perspectives from a number of different methodological and theoretical approaches so as to develop a truly inter- and multi-disciplinary understanding about what we mean when we discuss Atheism. On the other, this myriad of voices has equally led to an ever-broadening discordancy, an equivocal discourse ...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...oretically-expected correlations with established measures of religiousness and spirituality (the Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Religiosity, Humanistic Morality, and Traditional Religious Morality scales). In summary, the NRNSS may work as an initial attempt to address the limitations of other scales for capturing how religious/nonreligious/nonspiritual individuals are.

...

Luke Galen

...solely in terms of their lack of religious belief virtually guarantees that atheists and agnostics will appear inferior on a variety of outcome variables. However, nonbelief and secular worldviews can also be practiced in social groups such as atheist, humanist, and freethought organizations. Contrary to prevalent stereotypes, organized nonbelief is also associated with well-being and prosociality equivalent to that seen wit...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...roup members (“secular affiliates”), former members, and nonbelieving non-members (“secular nonaffiliates”) on nonbeliever group goals, functions, and activities. Second, we examined the perceptions of secular affiliates regarding why secular nonaffiliates do not join nonbeliever groups as well as the reasons given by secu

Gareth Longden

...d Kingdom Census. Particular attention is given to the topics of sex, age, residence, employment, and education background of the members.

...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data from the 1973 to 2012 General Social Surveys (GSS). The parameter estimates from the first half of the GSS data series, 1973-1991, provide a good fit to the 1993-2012 data. Calibrating the model to the

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

...of itself. How can we explain the secularity of academics? Research indicates that it has to do with a process of selection and self-selection, which starts in childhood and channels individuals who are highly intelligent, critical, independent, and confident towards the academic world. Contrary to what some might think, it is not getting a Ph.D., which contributes to individual secularity...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

...an image of a god with relational characteristics (e.g., loving, cruel, and/or distant). Can nonbelievers form an image of a hypothetical god? What characteristics do their hypothetical gods have? We conducted an Internet-based survey of adult nonbelievers in the U.S. (N = 458). Most (86%; N = 393) were able to form an image of a hypothetical god. On average, nonbelievers described a god that was more loving than distant or cruel. Compared to a previously re...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...uation. Dennett and LaScola found this to be true with priests and ministers. That study was the catalyst for the current study of rabbis’ shift in religious beliefs in general, and belief in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis voluntarily submitted vignettes concerning their shifts in religious belief. These vignettes were solicited via rabbinic list-serves. Those rabbis who denied a belief in a supernatural be...

Marcus Mann

...drawn to his computer, relating his thoughts on the 9/11 terrorist attacks’ implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith: a scathing indictment of religion, which in his opinion, was an impetus just as effective and real as the jet engines that propelled the terrorists’ weapons of choice to their targets. The End of Faith was the first of four polemics that have come to symbolize what is no...

Amanda Schutz

...justify;">Living the Secular Life begins with a popular assumption: life without religion is empty and meaningless. Without religion, one cannot develop a moral compass, raise decent and happy children, navigate tragedy, or cooperate effectively with others in society. Phil Zuckerman spends the remainder of the book refuting this claim. His goal is to explore “how secu

Rick Repetti

...hers insofar as it articulates many of Buddhism’s core philosophical values, to and for Western philosophy, and in a distinctly recognizable Western philosophical voice, but one that does no damage to the often radically different frameworks, methods, and modes of discourse that are distinctively Buddhist, much of which it presents in its own modality.

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

...lberry variety PFI-1, M. latifolia and Karyansuban, respectively. The highest Cu and Mn were found in Kanmasi. The highest Zn and Fe were found in Husang and Karyansuban, respectively. A significant variation in uptake and retention of macro- and micro nutrients was found in the mulberry varieties after fertilizer application. The highest N was taken up by Kanmasi, while the highest P and K were taken up by Husang. Iron and Cu increased, and Zn and Mn decrease...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

... the ever increasing population is a big challenge. Increase in crop water productivity (CWP) is one of the most important options for sustainable use of water resources in semi-arid environment. A field study was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 and Kharif 2011 crop seasons to compare the CWP of main crops (wheat, sugarcane, maize and tomato) under public and civil canal irrigation systems in Peshawar Valley. For this purpose, 18 farms were s...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

... olive tree which is popular for their medicinal values. Due to its bitter taste the fruit is unable to eat directly because the fruit contain high level of bitter glucoside such as oleourepean. Aim of this research work was to reduce the bitterness level of olive fruit by different treatment such as water, salt and lye solution which were coded as RW1, RW2 and RW3 respectively. During treatment process the bitter glucoside level such as oleourepean leach...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...he experiments were laid out in three replicated randomized complete block design. The seed of cotton variety “Sindh-1” was sown through drilling in the 1st week of May each year. The treatments consisted of: weedy check (no weeding), interculturing twice (30+60 DAS), Dual Gold 960-EC (S-metolachlor) @ 2.50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflo...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...fects of citric acid and lactic acid treated beef were studied previously on Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella typhymurium. This was aimed to investigate the effects of these acids on the total viable count (TVC) of these bacteria. Three diluted concentra- tions (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) of both citric acid and lactic acid were used. A total of 3024 meat samples were collected from cattle...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...longs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide pandemics. Currently, more research is required to be applied to JEV pathogenesis and antivirus therapy...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...e host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic infer...

Rick Repetti

...erts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipulated choices are unfree, determinism is functionally equivalent to manipulation, and thus determined choices are unfree; and the r...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...taple foods were inter-related. Also, it was showed that agricultural credit guarantee scheme funds (ACGSF), agricultural policies during structural adjustment period (SAP) and post-structural adjustment period (PSAP) were statistically significant while the agricultural input subsidy scheme was statistically insignificant in their impact on the prices of major staple crops. The study recommended painstaking formula...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...rst book meant for a popular audi- ence, Why Evolution is True, was a masterful exposition of the evidence supporting evolutionary biology. It was rightly seen by many as one of the best books yet written on that subject for a general audience and deservedly spent time on the bestsellers list. In his second book, Faith vs. Fact: Why Science and Religion are Incompatible, Coyne does less well. His aim is to demonstrate that the contrasting mindsets underly...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...ly and through the transplacenta. Hepatitis E virus is one of the viruses that causes acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Im...

Luca Vitale

...="text-align: justify;">Plants are often exposed in their habitat to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses that limit growth and productivity; however, plants are able, to some extent, to cope with limiting environmental conditions by means of different mechanisms that contribute to their adaptive success in different habitats.

...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...inated from NPEV-Cs circulating in Northern Nigeria. Here, we further investigate whether NPEV-Cs circulating in south-western Nigeria (SWN) contributed to the emergence of these lineages. In 2013 sewage contaminated water samples were collected from two sites in Lagos, Nigeria. Samples were concentrated and inoculated into MCF-7 and RD cell lines. Isola...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...s (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar, and Central Pacific) determining regional seropositivity between 63.5% and 100.0%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. ...

Elly Vintiadis

...nbsp;how it offers an explanation of the world and life of which science is a part.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...stinct Egyptian subclades of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); (A/chicken/Egypt/VRLCU67/2011) variant subclade 2.2.1.1 and (A/chicken/Egypt/13VIR3729-4/2013) classic subclade 2.2.1/C that were sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder), Virkon®S and Peraclean®. The purpose from using the Egyptian...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

...ne along with immune-modulators and to compare its efficacy with autogenous vaccine alone and partial excision of the lesions. To this end, nine animals were selected clinical and sporadic papillomas different body parts. These animals were divided into three groups; Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous vaccine alone and Group C were treated with inoc...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...m a retrospective surveillance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midge vectors from April 2009 to March 2010 in Morocco. In order to assess the implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 ...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...It causes the pituitary gland to release hormones needed to stimulate ovulation. Clomifene is useful in those who are infertile due to anovu- lation or oligoovulation. Clomifene inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin ...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

larger;">E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...fection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most common bacterial cause of kennel cough or canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective ...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...genomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake. If we apply this approach to clinical samples we can identify the community of etiological pathogens, without any know...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

... Brassica juncea L. cv. alankar was investigated. Forty-day-old pot plants were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), cata

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...techniques, traditional plant breeding has been on leading edge. The discovery of molecular genetics and biotechnological techniques, such as genome mapping, tissue culture, genetic transformation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars ...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...(lncRNA) contribute to a large proportion of the cellular RNA and are involved in regulating a plethora of biological and pathological processes. There is a strong evidence to suggest the association of differential regulation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to a number of disease processes including viral infections. Cellula<...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

... of chrysanthemums were planted during the first week of January and transplanted in 20 cm clay pots in July. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors replicated three times. Different levels of potassium (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg pot-1) and maleic hydrazide (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) were used. The results revealed...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...l (MOLM) as partially replacement of the cotton-seed cake (CSC) in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes. On the basis of nearly similar lactation stage and body weight, sixteen individually confined buffaloes were randomly blocked and allotted to four different dietary treatments. MOLM in proportion to CSC was supplemented along with maize si

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...ter using a modified two-layer, hand-sewn, end-to-end anastomosis technique in a calf treated for traumatic umbilical hernia with peritonitis. A cross-bred calf was presented with peritonitis due to traumatic umbilical hernia. The decision to operate the calf was made after confirmation of umbilical hernia resulted in septic shock. Animal was first stabilized with supportive treatment prior to surgical decompression. A modified two-la<...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...in indigenous maize germplasm comprising inbred lines NCMLQ1, NCMLQ2, NCMLD1, NCMLD2, NCMLD3, and NCMLD4. ese genotypes were crossed to get ten F1 hybrid combinations, which were used to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (in F1) and inbreeding depres- sion (in F2, BC1 and BC2) were quanti ...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...seeding depth, nitrogen placement method and biochar on the growth, yield and its related parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from ...

Corey McCal

...account for European secularization during the modern period. Unlike Hans Blumenberg, and, more recently, Charles Taylor, who tell the story of secularization as a process distinct from religious belief and religious institutions, Erdozain argues that the basis for secularization can be found in the religious ferment of modernity itself, beginning with the Protestant Reformation and extend...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...stify;">The response of planting sources i.e. standing (fresh canes-frost exposed) trenched (stored canes-frost protected), cane portions and setts placement methods on the attributes of sugarcane were assessed at Sugar Crops Research Institute, Mardan-Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in RCB Design with split plot arrangement, over years (2012-13 and 2013-14). Planting sources i.e. s...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...io-assayed against three larval instars of Atteva sciodoxa under laboratory conditions of 27±2ºC, 75% RH and 12:12 h photoperiod. Instar 3rd responded with 100% mortality at 5x107 conidia ml-1, while same level of mortality was recorded in 5th instar at 1x108 conidia ml-1. Instar 5 also showed the lowest mortality (33.3%) at 1x106 conidia ml-1. Median effective concentration (EC50) ranged between 9.87x105 and 21...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...c curve based on the available literature. A search was performed in some databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embasco and ISI Web of Knowledge between 1960 and 2015 years. Keywords such as kyphosis, spinal deformities were used in combination with orthosis, brace and corset. The searched outcome indicated that there were at least 15 articles published on this topic and most of them have a small number of subj...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...ked to stand on a force plate for one and then five minutes, respectively. Their stability parameters were evaluated based on the old and new methods. Paired sample t-test was used for comparison between two methods and different conditions (eyes open and eyes closed). Traditional method for stability analysis showed no difference between two conditions in one minute standing (p ≥ 0.05). However, the new method confirmed that stability parameters significan...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...ng them total knee artroplasty is being practised frequently. This method is suitable especially for elderly subjects with limited degree of physical activity. However, most of young subjects are not recommended to be treated with this method owing to high level of physical activities. KineSpring knee implant system was designed for young subjects with knee OA to reduce knee pain, improve stability and kn...

Fatemeh Kheiri

...tem and a Kistler force plate. The stability of subjects during standing and their energy consumption while walking were analyzed by the use of a Kistler force plate and a polar heart rate monitoring. The difference between the kinetic and kinematic between sound and prosthetic sides was evaluated by two sample t-test. The physiological cost index of amputees varied between 0.42 and 0.74 b...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...ysis system and a force plate (Kistler). The mediolateral excursion of the knee joint decreased while walking with the knee orthosis in contrast to normal walking. Moreover, the mediolateral moment applied on the knee joint decreased significantly. This new design of the orthosis improves the performance of the subjects during walking. It carried same performance as that of the knee c...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...ntitative PCR (RT-qPCR) plays an important role in the current field of virus detection and disease dynamics.  The validity and the reliability of generated data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...istently infected with a laboratory strain of BDV (C6BV ) to establish the assay. Next, in situ PLA was applied to detect BDV P in brain tissues of infected animals. Finally, protein-protein interactions were visualized in both C6BV and brain tissues of experimentally as well as naturally infected animals (rat and horse, respectively). BDV proteins and their interactions with host proteins...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...n studied by several scholars whom I label “Berkeley para-clericals,” chiefly philosopher Paul Feyerabend and historian John Heilbron. Their approach is distinctive: it views controversial topics involving the relationship between science and religion from a perspective that is secular-minded, but appreciative of religion, and yet conducted i...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

... Pakistan. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using split-plot arrangements with four replications. Main plot consisted of NPK and organic fertilizers while micronutrients viz. Zn, Cu and B (alone and in combinations) were assigned to sub-plots. The results revealed significant variations in plant growth and yield attributes with recommended doses of NPK fertilizers. This treatment (NPK at re...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

..., DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles incorporation) under varying nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on physiology, yield and economic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previous...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

... and rank order was calculated. Chi-square test was performed to find out association among demographic characteristics and MFSC registration duration and Rank Based Quotient was calculated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...stablished significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods adopted in this area. Results were presented using charts and tables. The study revealed that; chemical fertilizers, manual weeding and shifting cultivation are essential for rice cultivation in the study area; the regression model established strong influence of farm-size at R-value of 0.64 on the yield of rice in this area; while estimated yields of 101.6tons and 57.9tons fro...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

... in power due to the popularization of a self-serving theme that sharia is all-encompassing divine law and an essential guide to life. A new analysis of the 2013 Pew data shows us that religious leaders’ political and religious influences correlate with sharia’s popularity, and in turn, can correlate with p...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...="text-align: justify;">Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is generally a noncytopathogenic virus in cell cultures. The development of reporter CSFV has provided an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...y by an ELISA-like microplate-screening assay (ELASA). Top three candidate aptamers were then paired in a matrix of all possible capture and reporter aptamer combinations and tested in a fluorescent peroxidase-linked Amplex® UltraRed (AUR; a resazurin-like substrate) version of a rapid (< 1 h) aptamer magnetic bead sandwich assay. The optimal sandwich aptamer combination utilized th...

John G. Bruno

...pid passive immunity for large human populations in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

... of up to 40%, which is alarming. It is a zoonotic disease and the virus is transmitted mainly to the humans through hard tick bite and direct contact with blood of the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure th...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...es indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Anna-Maria Anderssonlass="s1">*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...-align: justify;">lass="s1">Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection in mink typically cause hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried b...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...ason crop. However, its planting in summer is at risk of the moon-soon outbreak duration in the season. Present study was aimed to quantify delay-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates star...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

...fy;">Abstract | Aflatoxins are the secondary metabolites produced by molds particularly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 is the most common metabolite highly toxic for humans and animals. In the present study contamination status of aflatoxin B1 in cotton seed ca...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...-align: justify;">lass="s1">Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious transboundary animal disease and one of the most economically devastating diseases that affect cloven-hoofed livestock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global c...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...he dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted to unanimously identify viruses of diverse genetic backgrounds. 

...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...sub-plot treatments. Similarly, number of seeds pod-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield of mungbean were also found significant. In main plots, weed density m-2 (16.47) and fresh weed biomass (529.8) were lower in herbicide treated plots in mungbean crop. Number of seeds pod-1 (10.85), thousand grains weight (30.15g), grain yield (366.56 kg ha-1) and biological yield of mungbean (1306.7 kg ha -...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...utions for total and available metals respectively. Wheat crops from both fields (orchard and non-orchard) were collected and analyzed with aqua-regia for heavy metals contents. Results showed that the average concentrations of metals in soils of orchard and non-orchard fields were as chromium (Cr) 56.9 and 52.2 mg kg-1, Ni 29.8 and 27.9 mg kg-1 and Cd 2.46 and 1.11 mg kg-1, respectively. The risk contribution from Cd, Cr and N...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...t drier, tunnel dryer, solar drier and portable solar dryer, on the white mulberry fruit (Morus alba) variety grown in District Skardu, Gilgit Baltistan. After drying, mulberry fruit was stored for 150 days and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Stati...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...-align: justify;">lass="s1">Abstract | Wheat is among the staple food crops in the world. In Pakistan, it is planted on a significant cropped area (Ca. 38%) every year. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), wheat is also a popular crop in the cropping system, however, average yield differs by 100% from the national average yield due to rainfed pla...

Tahir Khan, Raziuddin, Fakharuddin* and Muazam Jamal Razi

...eir 21 F4 populations. Significant differences were observed among genotypes, parents, F4 populations and parents versus F4 populations for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Among parents, CA2, DH8, DH4, CA...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...-align: justify;">lass="s1">The influence of growing conditions and planting dates on vegetative growth of Silvery was studied at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan,lass="s1"> during January to September, 2011. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots arrangem...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...r parent cultivars were planted in randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replicates at Tobacco Research Station Mardan (plain) and Tobacco Research Substation Mansehra (hilly). Data for all traits were analysed in pooled analysis and individual environments. Heterosis over better parent was determined for all traits across environments. Heterobeltiosis estimates reflected both positive and negative values, suggest...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...tural Research Center, Islamabad. The experiment was performed on randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of eleven treatments (cultivars) replicated three times during 2015. The results showed that Tarocco attained maximum height (156.13 cm), followed by Mexican Lemon (146.80 cm). Similarly, maximum plant spread and leaf area were recorded in Mexican Lemon 124.07 cm and ...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...isease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targete...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...st and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in recent years as well as changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, t...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

... economically important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the glo...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...s due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10% incidence level, the estimated total loss due to PPR in sheep and goats was INR 5041.5 million (77% was mortality loss and 23% was morbidity loss) and INR 11074.6 million (73% mortality loss and 27% morbidity loss), respectively. Further, sensitivity analysis und...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

..., Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be seronegative. Based upon the seasonal variations in the antibodies detection, environment appeared to be a significant factor on ...

Neil Levy

...rs believe that the singularity – roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we...

Neil Levy

...rs believe that the singularity – roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...-align: justify;">lass="s1">Abstract | Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a potentially lethal, highly contagious viral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrai...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

...) and two Kistler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated using independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence between left and right of normal subjects and those with PD. However, there was a significant decrease in walking speed and stride length in both sides of PD patients compared to normal subjects. Patients with PD showed a significant decrease in progressi...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...ack on static standing balance in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) compared to normal children under altered sensory environment. Out of 30 participants in the study, 15 children were with spastic diplegic CP with mean age and body mass index of 7 ± 1.3 years and 14.70 ± 1.73 kg/m2 respectively and 15 normal children with mean age and body mass index of 7.2 ± 1 years and 14.83 ± 1.57 kg/m2. Children were instructed...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...isease is endemic in Bangladesh and causes considerable economic losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, ...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...R including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture ELISA and...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

...o 75% maturity, tillers plant-1, spike length, spike density, grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, seed index and harvest index. Significance of GCA and SCA variances suggested that both additive and non-additive genes were controlling these characters. The magnitude of SCA variances were higher than GCA indicating pre-dominance of non-additive gene effects for spike length, spike density, se...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...lending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The values for WAI, WSI and SP were 4.73–6.18 g/g, 1.98–3.99% and 5.35–6.81 g/g, respectively. The blending of WF with BRF had substantially improved the proximate compositions and functional properties, which could be used in t...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

... evaluate the effect of plant arrangements i.e. planting geometry on yield and yield contributing traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrid Hysun-33 at the Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during spring 2011 and repeated in spring 2012. The planting geometries were (a) 70 x 20 cm with rows spaced at 70 cm and pla

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...ritance of maturity and plant architecture traits. Analyzed data revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for days to flowering, maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Analysis of combining ability revealed highly significant GCA (general combining ability), SCA (specific combining ability) and RCA (reciprocal combining ability) effects ...

 Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas-ullah Jan, Dawood Jan, Ghaffar Ali and Yousaf Hayat

...income in Pakistan. The elasticities of interest (quantity, expenditure and quality) were inelastic with reasonable difference in magnitude across urban and rural households. Overall, the quality elasticity turned out to be positive with an estimated value of 0.0061 and 0.2375 for wheat & wheat flour and rice & rice flour, respectively. The estimation of quality e

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...credit access ratio formula was employed that measured farmers’ access, in relative terms, to their landholdings. Likewise, credit adequacy formula was used to investigate farmers’ credit adequacy. A probit model was employed to find the important factors affecting access to credit. Results of access to credit ratio showed that small farmers ...

 Aqila Shaheen

...and detrimental types of land degradation that deteriorates both soil quality and land productivity. Determination of soil characteristics and nutrient status of eroded lands is pre-requisite for restoring their productivity. The objective of present study was to quantify the selected soil properties and nutrient status of eroded soils.  The study was undertaken on eight soil series (...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...sources for water eroded lands during 2007-08. The combination of nutrient sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK100+FYM20. Results revealed that NPK75FYM20` significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield. As regards soil properties, NPK20FYM20 reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation percentage, o...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

...s administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 14 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
...eshawar, Dir Lower and Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all the three districts the egg albumen was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, Cd and Cr as compared to egg yolk which contains significantly higher levels of essential elements (Fe, Mn and Zn). The mean concentrations of toxic heavy metals; Pb, Cd and Cr in albumen samples collected from Peshawar were 0.13, 0.06 and 0.09 (ppm) respectively. ...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...pared to male (14%). Similarly significant difference was recorded among age group i.e. adult were more susceptible as compare to young ones. In subsistence farms level prevalence in intensive, extensive farming and nomads was 74.07%, 57% and 83.3% respectively. Breeding through natural service was in greater risk (94%) as compared to artificial insemination (78%). In humans overall sero-prevalence was recorded 12.12%, 09.59% and 08.59% by SPAT, i-ELISA and PC...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

...akistan. Treatments were laid-out in a randomized complete block design; split plot arrangements using four replications. The experiments were comprising of seven N-rates i.e. 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg ha-1 as main plots treatment and the five wheat varieties i.e. Saleem-2000, Uqab, Pirsabak-2005, Tatara-96 and Pirsabak-2004 as subplot treatment. Results revealed higher spikes m-2 (286), grains spike-1 (38.55) and thousand grains weight (44.67 g) whi...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...ed maximum branches per plant (5.2), pods per plant (32.3), seeds per pod (4.7), seed index (82.7 g) and seed yield (2589 kg ha-1) when compared with 0.0 and 10 kg K2O ha-1. Interestingly, Sel-449 was the most responsive genotype to K nutrition which resulted in higher branches per plant (5.3), pods per plant (29.7), seeds per pod (4.5), seed index (87.3...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...ity characteristics in relation to breed and age. A total of one hundred and eight beef samples from Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected from three age groups (i.e. group 1= 12-18 monts, 2 =18.1-36.0 months and 3= > 36 months) of Kundi and Nili Ravi breeds of buffalo. Samples were obtained from freshly preselected slaughtered buffaloes at local municipal abattoir Peshawar. The effect of breed and animal age on marblin...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...tween species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calcul...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...e divided into two main classes; polar lipids (phospholipids) and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Lipid oxidation has been long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechanisms such as generation of reactive oxygen precursors and free radicals. Oxidation affects many interactions among food constituents, leading to ...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...align: justify;"> Balanced nutrition is imperative for efficient nutrient management and has considerable role in enhancing crop yield. To study the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on maize hybrids, field experiments were laid out at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Nitrogen (0, 250, 300, 350 kg ha-1) and Sulfur (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha-1)...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...ssible to know the molecular profile of the cellular surface. Whole CELL SELEX is very useful in the field of diagnostics and targeted therapy and the aptamers generated can be utilized to differentiate cancerous cells from normal cells or even different types of cancerous cells, detect live pathogenic organisms, and to discover novel disease biomarkers to facilitate early detection of the disease and for therapeutic purpose...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

...tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Bengal goats were highly affected (53.33%) followed by Jamuna...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...ins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), E. coli O157 and related Gram negative bacteria. However, unrelated Gram positive bacteria exhibited very few, if any, bands in common with those identified on t...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...everal factors affecting lactation milk yield amounts of indigenous Akkaraman ewes reared in Sanliurfa (137 farms) and Hakkari (113 farms) provinces of Turkey. For the determination process, the statistical predictive accuracy of GLM (General Linear Model), CART (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multila

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...elopathic properties of plants is thought to be an effective and environment-friendly approach for weed management. A pot experiment to evaluate the allelopathic potential of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) against Convolvulus arvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was la...

 Ian von Hegner

...debate has avoided a similar redefinition in light of democracy, despite the fact, that it involves the same negation of modern fundamental rights. The basic democratic idea posits that all of its members have a full and equal status. If this status is generalized to be universally applicable, then it follows that humankind likewise are not second and first class among hypothetical gods. The existence or nonexistence of the ...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...an (Acari:Varroidae) populations in honeybee Apis mellifera linguistica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in the winter, spring and summer season (2013-14). Four honeybee colonies were exposed to oxalic acid (3.2%), thymol (0.5 g) and formic acid (65%) on screen bottom boards in winter, spring and summer seasons. The fourth group had screen bottom board trays but without any chemical. There was a trend of fallen mean number of mites 157±6.28, 97±3.8...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

... Se for five days. Cows placed in group two was treated with Garlic for five days. Group three cows were treated with Black pepper for five days and group four cows were treated with Lemon for five days. Group five having 6 healthy cows were used as negative control so they can be used for comparing blood values and milk composition of healthy cows with animals under trial. Our study concluded that Vitamin E+ Se and Garlic w...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...re used to analyze the relationships between the catch of Portunus trituberculatus in the northern East China Sea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the int...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...ater treatment as a coagulant-flocculent due to its ability to coagulate various ionic substances such as metal ions as well as dyes. In the current study novel polymer composites were prepared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chitosan starch based ...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...ntributes the desirable flavour and texture. The addition of gums in low fat cheese softens the structure by the interference of the casein-casein interaction and cellulose particles that function similar to fat globules. The present study was aimed to assess the impact of hydrocolloid gums on functional, textural and sensory attributes of low fat Cheddar cheese. Buffalo milk was standardized at 2% and 4% fat levels to manuf...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...ut the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation (with and without Mycorrhiza) along with application of various levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer on spores density and percent root colonization of selected sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in P-deficient soil. It was observed that spore density and AMF root colonization was higher in the soil of control (RP0) p

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...otton varieties. The population  of  this research covers the area of Rahim Yar Khan of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen farms were selected from each of the NonBT-cotton farms and BT-cotton farms. The Cobb- Douglas Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) has been employed to determine the technical efficiency of these growers. Technical efficiency has been found dissimilar under bot...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...g ha-1 resulted maximum plant height, number of green leaves plant-1, number of opened bolls plant-1, seed index, and seed cotton yield ha-1. Red leaves reduced when soil was fertilized with N, P and K @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1; and plots without application of K (120-70-0 kg ha-1) and PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...n: justify;"> The upland pastures in western Himalayan of Northern Pakistan are traditionally used by mobile pastoralists for livestock grazing during summer. Since the late 1980’s, these pastures have been used for off season vegetables cultivation which leads to change the traditional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...fferent aspects of molecular biology of the virus and to consolidate national and international strengths to eradicate the disease from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews that have provided up-to-date and current research trends in the field to further facilitate disease eradication campaigns. 

...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

... cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays an important in the virus pathobiology, however, its role in viral assembly and replication is poorly defined. In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. This interaction may serve as a link in the processes of HCMV capsidation ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...igospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata and Lecanicillium muscarium isolated from root and soil samples collected in Prague, Czech Republic, were cultured on agar media and tested against Meloidogyne hapla both in-vitro and in-vivo. All fungi proved to be effic...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...m decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides were able to penetrate into c...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...ne of the commonly used plants in Islamic countries.The root extracts of S. persica has been tested for its anticoccidial activity against Eimeria paillata induced infection in mice jejunum. Three different doses, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg were used after infection of mice with sporulated oocysts. A dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the number of oocy...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...rature and photoperiod, play important roles in animals’ physiological adjustments. In order to determine the contributions of temperature and photoperiod to seasonal changes in body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri, we examined seasonal-acclimatized and lab-acclimated animals on several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capacity. The results showed that ...

Usman Ijaz1, Muhammad Sajid Tahir2, Khalid Abdul Majeed3*, Shahid Iqbal4, Iffat Huma5, S. Firyal6, Ijaz Ahmed7, Shahid Chohan8 and Aamir Riaz Khan9 

...igate the evolutionary relationship of the Panthera pardus subspecies found in Pakistan by exploring the partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Scat samples of 15 different known leopards were collected from Nathiagali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After amplification with specific oligos, the amplicons of partial region of COI were subjected to sequencing, and then ob...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...ly associated with meat flavor, were greater (p<0.05) in DDGS compared to control group. Supplementation of DDGS increased (p<0.05) the level of conjugated linoleic acid, which has been reported to reduce body fat accumulation, when compared with control group. Taken together, these data indicate that DDGS can be utilized as a feed additive and has beneficial effects on unsaturated fatty acid formation in pork without ...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...udy was undertaken to isolate and identify Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (Mmm) from the ear canal of apparently healthy cattle in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty six ear swab samples (n=166) were cultured from which eight (8) Mycoplasma species were isolated and characterized using conventional ...

Muhammad Aslam

...ion, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...rs was evaluated by calculating the values of average treatment effects (ATE) on eight performance indicators. The outcomes of study disclosed that cooperative members have higher farm income, more milk production, reared improved cattle breeds, get better access to veterinarian services and used more nutritious fodder (silage), as compared to non-members. The findings of study also provided the evidence that establishment o...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...RCBD design. The zinnia plants were grown under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) and T4=8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm). The results revealed significant (P<0.05) photoperiodic effect on all the growth and quality traits of Zinnia. The Zinnia grown under 8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm) with 38.29 cm p...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

...with the potential to replace antibodies in many diagnostic formats. The aptamer industry is continuously growing to create space in research and diagnostics markets. However, translation of aptamer in several applied disciplines is still lagging behind as compared to antibodies. In this article, we discuss the translational aspects of aptamers, current ...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...ication and intensive tillage is the norm on Pakistani farms, which exacerbate water logging and salinity and reduce the water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime empla

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...ly Meropidae with a very large distribution. The complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-throated Bee-eater M. viridis was determined. The mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule of 18,295 bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT ske...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...ver injury induced by inflammation, oxidative stress in response to APAP toxicity in rats. Serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LP) levels were estimated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination us...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...r and Charsadda. Four villages were studied two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that owners (59.31 percent off-farm employment) were performing more off-farm jobs than the tenants (50.74 percent off-farm employment) and owner-cum-tenants (41.77 percent off-farm employment). The dominancy of owners in the off-farm employment was associated to the farm holding size (up to 1 acre), they operated. Similarly the ...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...ntries and its rural population may equalize that of the urban till 2030. There are other changes as well like population growth and the wealth effects that have been observed in Pakistan. These changes can affect the consumption pattern of the people, and hence result in the food demand shifts. The current study estimates for the presence of structural shifts in the demand for food in Pakistan for the selected food groups f...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...it drugs is a chronic, relapsing multifactorial disorder of brain and, if left untreated, major medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani popu

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...iedmont alluvium, silty clay loam, Ustochrept]. The Zn adsorption capacity was determined by adding 50 ml of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240 and 360 mg Zn L-1 (initially Zn applied, IZnA) to 5 g soil with absence (non-treated) or to soil pretreated with FYM, PM or BC at rate of 10 g kg-1. The suspension was shaken on horizontal shaker for 20 h continuously to assess the equilibrium Zn concentration (EZnC). The difference between the IZnA and EZnC was assumed to...

larger;">Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...ify;">Mastitis (mammary gland inflammation) is one of the most important diseases causing economic losses to dairy farm owners. In order to develop new strategies to prevent mastitis, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the host immune response to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune respo...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

... organic carbon of three land uses viz. forest land, grassland, and cultivated land were quantified. These land uses belonged to two soil groups having different soil type and climate. Selected soil groups were Inceptisols (site 1) and Mollisols (site 2). Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density (BD), soil organic c...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...text-align: justify;">O. lacepedii, O. rebecca and O.

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...ract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Dipt...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...ristics of Hy-line white laying hens as a commercial type through two-way ANOVA, to estimate the Pearson correlation between pairs of egg external and internal characteristics and to predict each of egg internal characteristics from egg external characteristics, treatment and week through CHAID analysis. A total number of eighty, 56 weeks old Hy-Line White laying hens (commercial type) of ...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...ss ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) through interference competition. However, relatively less testing have been done to evaluate the competition for mutual exploitation between the two ant species in the field. Here, we investigated the interference of the fire ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost ant T. melanocephalum and the invasive mealybug ...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*

...pes Latreille, 1804 is a large genus of spider with cosmopolitan distribution but has not been much studied in Pakistan. Two new species, Oxyopes chenabensis new species, and Oxyopes bidentata new species are being reported from Punjab.

...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...r indicated that the population of many endemic and commercially important fish species has declined while the exotic family Cichlidae representative of three species (Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis aureus and Oreochromis niloticus) has become well established in the study area. Similarly the population of exotic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) also seems to be established in the Indus...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...ffect of mycorrhiza inoculation with vermicompost on yield and P uptake of wheat. The experiment was carried out in Completely Randomized Design replicated four times during season 2014-15. Phosphorus (P) was applied at recommended level of 90 kg ha-1. Vermicompost was used as a source of P on the basis of its P concentration. The recommended dose of N @ 120 kg ha-1 was applied in the form of vermicompost and urea, while K was applied in the form of sulphate o...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

... groups are own price inelastic in both regions except milk, rice, tea and coffee and backed products which are more than unit elastic to own price. Similarly the demand for most of food groups in both regions are less than unit elastic to total expenditures and have positive sign, while the demand for milk, meat, rice, other cereals and other food produ...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...he results were further elaborated through deciles under both income and expenditure approaches. The lower poorest category estimated through deciles contributes 2.78% to the overall rural region’s income. However, the upper richest category shares 30.06% to the aforementioned income. The deciles measured through expenditure approach revealed that the lower poorest category and upper richest category contributes 3.13 and 25.59, respectively. The study co...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

... trade is expected to be largely better off once WTO’s regime is fully implemented in Pakistan and rest of the world”. The statistical results show that, the coefficient of variation of Pakistan exports trade estimates at 0.1657 during 1985-90 and 0.0936 during 1990-95 pre-WTO periods, which with the exception of sub-period 2000-05 decreased throughout post-WTO period, which suggests Pakistan exports got smoothened after WTO’s implementation ...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...rations under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed 25%, 30%, 70%, 50% and 65% mortality occurred by tested pesticides at field relevant doses after 144 h respectively. Missing mites data indicated repellency due to pesticides, was highest at the start of experiment, and then these acclimatized on leaf discs. Thiacloprid having lowest LC50 value 295 and proved toxic for the predator while diafenthiuron and pyriproxyfen have higher values. The fi...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...d environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), which are developed by an in-vitro selection process known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stabi...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...evaluating the role of melatonin in extender for its cryoprotective effect on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile spermatozoa ml-1) in tri...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

... stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation stage in polycarbonate box took 58.3 days which was about 7-1...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...ct of acute exposure of Clarias gariepinus juveniles to commonly used herbicides, glyphosate and paraquat was evaluated through changes in fish behaviour and mortality. Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercu

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...ofile of 4th, 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of deltamethrin-resistant populations of T. granairum collected from wheat godowns of Gujranwala, Okara and D.G khan has been studied in current investigation. The toxicological data generated from deltamethrin-resistant populations was compared with deltamethrin-susceptible popul...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...g nematode that affects plant growth and yield. We report on studies aimed to evaluate the effects of five nematophagous fungi on the population dynamics of this pest in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannu<...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

... for future studies and plantation of this area. It is suggested that plantation of invasive species should be discouraged which might become problematic in future for the indigenous flora.

...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...2009 to evaluate the population fluctuation of insect pests and their predators in sunflower ecosystem. The data revealed that B. tabaci and Empoasca spp were present throughout the cropping season. Their average maximum populations (5.65 and 3.20 individuals / leaf) were recorded during 3-week of May 2009. Aphis gossypii was recorded during the month of March and its maximum population (2...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...use to determine the population dynamics of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the nematophagous fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium, on tomato. The nematode population densities were measured by determining the number of galls and egg masses, juveniles and eggs per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with a...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, through soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared ...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

... 54 (GPR54) is a key regulator of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whereas GnRH is a crucial neurohormone regulating the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at puberty. The deficiency in release or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired se...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...V) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further investigation. This study examined relationships between GH and LGV, T and LGV and GH and T in 540 normal healthy boys of 1 to 20 years (n=27 ...

larger;"> Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...justify;">Due to non-availability of mass production techniques in Pakistan, the development and application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations wer...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...al poultry farm in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria with mortality of up to 79.12%. The clinical signs observed were prostration, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anorexia, trembling and mortality that lasted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, mucosa of the junction between the proventriculus and gizzard, severely enlarged and hemorrhagic ...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...ere is a scarcity of population-based information on the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of ...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...chickens (400 Huangshan black chickens and 400 Huainan partridge chickens) of similar age and weight were evaluated in the present study. We extracted DNA from blood samples and analyzed polymorphisms of HTT gene as wells as possible association with egg production performances including age at first egg (AFE), laying rate (LR), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), average egg weight (AEW...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...om the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further study of SS neuropeptide family in C. nasus.

...

larger;">Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

... total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The antiradical scavenging property and the maximum nontoxic concentration of the extract was determined using DPPH assay and MTT method, respectively. Serial concentrations of the extract not exceed the maximum nontoxic concentration were used against Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 and ant-HSV-2 effects by plaque assay. The result...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...ictive capability among classification and regression trees (CART), chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID), radial basis function (RBF) networks and multilayer perceptrons with one (MLP1) and two (MLP2) hidden layers in body weight (BW) prediction from selected body measurements in the indigenous Beetal goat of Pakistan. Moreover, the results obtained with the data mining algori...

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

...ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is sub-divided in 4 sub-species (P. krameri krameri, P. krameri parvirostris, P. krameri manillensis and P. krameri borealis). Identification of the sub-species is an intricate chore. This study aimed to genetically identify and classify the indigenous wild Rose-ringed Parakeet of Pakistan using Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene polymorphism. Mitochondrial DNA of 24 unrela...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...t adiposity signals and play certain roles in various biological processes. Now their involvement in the regulation of hypothalamus pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis has also been established. In the present study, we investigated the role of peripheral administration of neuromedin S (NMS) on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) secretion in 48-h fasting and normal fed adult male Rhesu...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...le breeds. TGC was a popular race to breeding within Thrace and Western Anatolia, but unfortunately they are under the threat of extinction recently. The application of gene specific molecular markers in genotyping and genetic identification is of essential significance for preserving genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to reveal the genotype profile of indigenous types for TGC breed. In order to characterize TGC po...

larger;">Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...roosting at Jinnah and Lalazar Gardens, Lahore was carried out from January, through December, 2011 and a total of twelve fungal and twelve bacterial genera were isolated. Four fungal (Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium and Saccharomyces) and two bacterial genera (Klebsiella and Nocardia) were isolated from bolus only, three fungal (Cryptococcus, Histop

Sania Subhan Qureshi, Mian Saeed Sarwar and Zahir Shah

...nd eggs to the local population and helps in poverty alleviation and a source of family income through entrepreneurship. A hen with the complaint of swelling on abdominal region, came to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Physical examination was performed and it was diagnosed a case of muscle tumor (myoma). A skin incision was given to expose and to remove tumor mass from the surrounding ...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...-align: justify;">Nucleoplasmin (Npm) is the most abundant protein in the nucleus of oocytes which can promote in vitro nucleosome formation. In this study, to improve the efficiency of SCNT in Banna Mini-pig Inbred Line (BMI), we obtained the recombinant nucleoplasmin (Npm) by using a prokaryotic expression system and compared the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyg...

larger;">Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

... + Cu) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to interact with the host immune system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for th...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...me, corresponding to the largest known RNA genome, with about 27kb for AvCoV. The first 5’ two thirds of this genome, correspondent to a wide ORF1 (also called replicase gene), code for non-structural proteins (nsps) that are enrolled in viral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps act in a complex replication process...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...as found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (Unit 2) which produced 300 to 500 metric tons per month. Proximate composition of fish meal samples collected from different units showed that protein contents were 50.51% – 61.26% and energy was d...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

... of the predator Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and to evaluate its efficacy on Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kastamonu, Turkey. Rearing of C. septempunctata was carried out at 21.3±4.00ºC and 78.8±9.44% relative humidity. The first, second, third and fourth larval instars of C. septempunctata consumed 20.3, 54.3, ...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...major immune organ that plays an important role during malaria infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 ...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...t average fecundity with latency period of 47.70±0.54 h was observed in treatment 3 (40% CP) while treatment 2 (35% CP), in combination of ovaprim + fresh PG showed very short latency period when compared to the ovaprim+HCG injected fish. Treatment 1 and control failed to spawn. Fish fed on 30% protein diet (treatment 1) and the control had the lowest fecundity showing insufficiency of protein required for proper deve...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...hy and to evaluate its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while t...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

... not only for Judaism, Islam, and mainline Christianity, but also for Mormonism, a distinctive branch of Christianity. Officially known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), Mormonism shares some root metaphors with other Christians but differs in important ways in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journey, battle, and container metaphors in relation to LDS doctrine ...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...ich have practically similar external morphologies although they spread in completely different geographical areas. The approach adopted was to identify landmarks on the skulls of all specimens using the tpsDig software, and then analyzing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show that L. griselda has the largest skull, whereas L. zebra has the smallest. L. griselda and L. rosalia...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...duct of the KISS1 gene, plays an essential role in the regulation of spermatogenesis acting primarily at the hypothalamic level of the gonadotropic axis. Citric acid is synthesized and secreted by the prostate gland. Its synthesis is regulated by androgens. As, dose dependent degeneration of prostate g

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...tential of four diets in larval development of lady bird beetle, Coccinella undecimpunctata, under laboratory conditions was done. These include mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...f Pakistan. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) were used as screening tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...za viruses and its molecular detections in asymptomatic commercial layers from Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 120 blood samples, 24 tissue samples from each organ (trachea, lung and intestine) were collected from the 12 commercial layer flocks selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...stan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, emamectin benzoate with other conventionally used insecticides against B. zonata. The results revealed the high toxicity of emamectin benzoate wit...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...an exaggeration of fibroplasia in dermal repair. Keloids are found solely in humankind, and not in animals. Thus far no practicable animal model of Keloid has been made. Recently a prototype rabbit ear keloid model has been produced by the authors by giving Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by the technique wher...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...The study of Pashtun populations of North-West Pakistan deserves special attention due to the demographic transitions caused by recurrent displacements, fragmentation and migrations. In order to observe the genetic differentiation in lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) region, ABO and Rh blood groups record of nine Pashtun populations, i.e., Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hangu, Karak, Kohat, Kurram ...

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...s. It is caused by Brucella abortus in animals and Brucella melitensis in human. The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...cked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, the reproductive potential of EPNs incr...

John G. Bruno

...>SA) to rank their relative affinities and discriminatory ability for distinguishing between each of the STEC serovars. The most specific biotinylated aptamers from the ELASA screening were then attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (SAv-MBs) and used to capture their cognate and related E. coli serovars. ...

Dein Simon

...ngs there are marked similarities between the two groups. In this paper I analyse new atheism in terms of fundamentalist characteristics discussed by the Fundamentalism Project: Reactivity, dualism, absolutism and inerrancy, apocalypticism. Additionally both underscore the role of evidentialism. From my analysis of these characteristics I conclude that the movement is fundamentalist

...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...heat + Rumex dentatus 0 plants m-2 (T1), wheat + Rumex dentatus 05 plants m-2 (T2), wheat + Rumex dentatus 10 plants m-2 (T3), wheat + Rumex dentatus 15 plants m-2 (T4), wheat + Rumex dentatus 20 plants m-2 (T5), wheat + Rumex dentatus 25 plants m-2 (T6), and wheat + Rumex dentatus 3...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

... strains reveal high similarity with difference close to cleavage site (HARSSR/ GLF) and (PARSSR/GLF) for V3 and RSF/1 respectively. Results of growth kinetics in PBMCs showed that V3 replicated more efficiently comparing to RSF/1 at all-time points. Further, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regu

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...ity of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2013-14. Adsorption procedure was done by harmonizing 2.5g soil in 0.01M CaCl2 solution having diverse B doses (0, 0.01, 0.03 , 0.05 , 0.07, 0.09, 0.11, 0.13,0.15 and 0.17 mg B L-1). Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were applied to the data to check the sorption of B on sandy clay loam soil. Freundlich model depicted superior fitness of the sorption (r2=0.99) statistics than La...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...igned to alleviate the aflatoxin-B1 toxicity by the use of 0.5% calcium bentonite clay and to evaluate its effect on the growth performance of Nile tilapia over a period of 10 weeks. Inclusion of AFB1 at both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) ...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled s...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...ody condition score. The lactating animals and pregnant animals were more commonly affected (81.8% and 63.6%), respectively. The main clinical signs were high fever (100%), sore foot (72.7%) and sored mouth (63.6%). The category of 16-20 days of illness of FMD was recorded for 36.5% cases. The treatment given was sulphonamaide or amoxicillin along with other supportive drugs. The recovery rate was 60-80%.

...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...d intestine were mainly classified as acidic (AB-positive) and neutral (PAS-positive). Statistical analysis were confirmed that, the numbers of acidic and neutral cells of per unite square of epithelial area were significantly different.

...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...d intestine were mainly classified as acidic (AB-positive) and neutral (PAS-positive). Statistical analysis were confirmed that, the numbers of acidic and neutral cells of per unite square of epithelial area were significantly different.

...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...align: justify;">Matuta planipes and Ashtoret lunaris were collected as a part of by catch of gillnet deployed for shrimps from April 2005 to March 2007 in Sonmiani Bay waters (Miani Hor lagoon). M. planipes was found abundantly in Sep. 2005, Nov. - Dec. 2005 and Dec. 2006 (93.3%, 94.7%, 92.3% and 87 % respectively). A. lunaris was found in abundance during May 2005 (85.7%) and Aug. 2005 (...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

.... The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceum F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea can be cons...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

... Pakistan. A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were the most dominant followed by A. terrus and A. ochraceous in fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total fungal counts ranged from 1×103 to 4×103cfu/ml for all species in both fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was present with high frequency in fresh (37.5%) and ensiled (41.66%...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...ed the abundance and population structure of Little Indian field mouse, Mus booduga, at five lakes in the Salt Range, Punjab, Paklistan. The trapping data of 375 trap nights indicated highest abundance of Mus booduga (no = 132), out of 141 small mammals trapped. Majority of the Mus booduga specimens were adults (56.06%) while the juvenile/sub-adults were 43.94% of the total specimens trapped. The highest trap success of Mus ...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...asonal variations of zooplankton community structure and their relationships with both environmental factors and phytoplankton biomass are investigated in Lake Nansihu. A total of 76 zooplankton species were identified in the lake, including 17 protozoa, 36 rotifera, 12 cladocera and...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...ic process of cardiovascular disease, but for a long time it is just limited to large animals, like pigs, rabbits, and big rats. The mice with reproduction fast cycle, lower costing, and close to human genes, can be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophys...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...al functions. Although a large number of transgenic mouse models carrying astrocyte-specific transgene expression of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential f...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...ian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847, Family: Clupeidae), fishery resources from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data (1994 – 2009) were analyzed by CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) consists of Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual la...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...us along with other coagulase negative Staphylococci are among the major mastitis causing organisms. Consumers of milk and milk products from mastitic animals are at high risk of foodborne infections. Escalating antibiotic resistance strived us to explore the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

... markers are ideal molecular markers for the following investigating genetic diversity, constructing genetic maps, and marker assisted selection.

...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm income. The value addition initiatives use profile of the fish farmers was still very low among the respondents and training was highly needed on value addition initiatives in seven major areas. It was recommended that robust training programmes and advisory services should be packag...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

... 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter Logistic models were used. The best model was determined by considering the root mean square error, R2 % and asymptotic correlation coefficient criteria. We concluded that the Gompertz and Richards models were favourable for singletons and that the Richards model was favorable for determining twin Colored Mohair goat growth characteristics. Birth type shoul...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...es oxidative stress may play some role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare the levels of metals and minerals among its various genotypes in RA patients. A total of 400 individuals including age and gender matched healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detection of rs2070424 p...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...composition of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda (weight 23.5g−125.8 g) were investigated. Fish were randomly distributed in rectangular glass tanks (150 liter) and were fed at six ration levels of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,3.5, 4.0 and 4.5% body weight per day (BW d−1) and four feeding frequency i.e., once, twice, thrice and four times per day. Fish in all replicates were ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...ues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Camellia sine...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...eratively breed in a population habituated to supplemental feeding by humans. The social structure and demography of this species, however, have not been examined in natural populations. To determine if cooperative breeding occurs in populations unassociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in we...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...tory efficiency of five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. T...

Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...s including grain yield plant-1 which can be subsequently utilized in future wheat breeding to develop high yielding new wheat cultivars from transgressive segregants recovered in latter generations.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...e of 66.01%. Moreover, related to sex discrimination, 69.80:63.83% (GMT 14.83:15.92) antibody titre has been screened in female and male, respectively. So, based on the sero-prevalence, the evaluation of intrinsic (age groups and sex) and extrinsic factors (season fluctuation) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

..., Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and locat...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...ly being applied to stimulate nutrient cycling and plant growth. However, information regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six tre...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost was the major component of total cost followed by labor cost. Average milk produced by buffalo and cow was 180 and 135 liters per month, respectively. Average total costs of milk production of buffalo and cow were Rs.12835 and Rs.10070 per month respectively whereas the average ne...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...andom sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources wa...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...te the grain yield and related yield components of synthetic derived bread wheat lines under different moisture levels, this research was conducted during 2006-07 in the field conditions of Tel Hadya and Breda i.e. the leading research venues of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. The experimental material comprised of forty synthetic derived wheat lines along with eight check cultivars was p

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...tal operational holding, last year yield of sunflower, access to extension services and share of non-agricultural income. By increasing 1 percent in these parameters will increase the probability for adoption of sunflower. Keeping in view the importance of this crop it is suggested to provide market structure for sunflower growers near to their field areas and Research efforts should be made to overcome the problems faced by sunflower growers.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

... one percent increase in land under sugarcane crop, seed , urea, DAP, farmyard manure, tractor hours, irrigation, pesticides used and labour days would rise sugarcane yield by 0.053, 0.103, 0.068, 0.020, 0.024, 0.111, 0.118, 0.005 and 0.121% respectively. All inputs except DAP, farmyard manure and pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extensi...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

..."text-align: justify;">Palai dam is a small irrigation dam located on the northern border of district Charsadda, adjacent to Mohmand agency. The construction of dam was started in 2009 and was completed in 2011. It is claimed that dam will irrigate 5000 acre of land in four mouza’s of district Charsadda. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Pa<...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...aled maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, brix percentage, reducing and non-reducing sugar. A total of 79.75% cumulative variance was estimated in genotypes with PCA analysis at eigenvalue >1 and grouped 20 genotypes into five clusters at Euclidean distance (ED) 7...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

...ion of yield and yield related traits in wheat. For all the studied traits, mean squares showed the presence of significant variation (p≤0.01) among the genotypes. Heritability estimates were observed high (h2˃0.60) for all the traits. The highest heritability (0.93) was noticed in plant height followed by flag leaf area (0.89). The values of genetic advance were recorded low to mo...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...lm tree. Pollen sources play important role in fruit setting .The growers pollinate the date by using low potency pollen source and get low yield. Present studies were conducted with the aim to explore best pollen sources for maximum fruit set and yield. In this respect, an experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the male spath characteristics and to observe the effect of pollen sources on fruit set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...zation of inputs such as land, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative efficiency analysis. It is indispensable that policies aimed at adapting innovative farming techniques must be implemented in an efficient manner. Effectively implementation of agricultural schemes, formal education and in-formal education should be...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...termine the effect of tillage with and without residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield of wheat-maize cropping systems in the erosion-vulnerable sub-humid area. Treatments included tillage levels i.e. ST (shallow tillage), STR (shallow tillage with residues), DT (deep tillage) and DTR (de...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

... its easy and excess availability in the rural areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is considered a main staple food in low income households. Due to small scale farming in the province the maize growers are always in need of loan for the purchase of inputs. The present study examined the effect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stag...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...p., Alternaria brassicicola, Pythium sp. and Aspergillus flavus were screened against Wilt causing pathogens using the dual culture assay. Among them, Aspergillus flavus was found active fungus against the selected vascular Wilt causing fungus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibition), Xanthomonas campestris (67.00 ± ...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...consistency limits like plastic limit (PL), liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI), tensile strength (TS), shear strength (cohesion (C) and angle of friction (φ)) were studied. Results showed that amendments had improved soil physico-mechanical properties. No specific trends were observed for consistency limit, however, PI decreased for all the amendments applied and LL showed correla...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...t devastating impact on plant growth. Heat shock transcription factors are known to play an important role in regulating heat stress in plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) was transformed with heat shock transcription factor HsfA1d by transfecting leaf discs with Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying CaMV35S-YFP::HsfA1d construct. After PCR and confo...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...living conditions of populations worldwide. Keeping that in mind, this study was conducted in northwest Pakistan with the aim to identify the effect of armed conflict on income from tomato crop. The study is based on the primary data collected from two villages namely Shilozan and Pewar in Kuram Agency in the northwest of Pakistan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. The results of the paired t...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...ed trial for seed yield plant-1 performance. Differences among the parental lines, testers, F1 hybrids and line × tester interaction for found significant (P<0.01) for the studied parameter. Promising genotypes for seed yield i.e. L-4, L-5, L-7 and T-4 were identified as best parents as they outclassed all other genotypes by producing maximum seed yield per plant of 28 g. Since, t...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...lected namely Adinzai, Balambat, Timergara and Sumerbagh on the basis of purposive sampling technique. From these tehsils, 92 farms were selected randomly from 460 poultry farms. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...r therapy had become popular in recent years. Ceramide is a metabolite in sphingolipid pathway of the cells that has an ability to promote cell death in tumor cells when produced endogenously in the cells or applied exogenously. Ceramidases, which are main component of ceramide pathway catalyze metabolism of proapoptotic ceramide to anti-apoptotic sphingosine and other fatty acids. In this study we have evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of ceranib-2, a human ...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...ve the aim, 1884 Mengali lambs were provided for predicting weaning weight from sex (male and female), birth type (single and twin), birth year (2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009), farm (Research station, Mastung, Quetta, and Noshki), birth weight, dam age, and dam weight. To choice the best regression tree method, goodness of fit criteria such as coefficient of determination (R2%), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj-R2%), coefficie...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...ctions. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecula
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
... are the major pests of plant crops in temperate areas of the world. They are monophagous as well as polyphagous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and p<...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
... New Roman";">The relationship between a coccinellid beetle (Coccinella septempunctata L.) and four different aphid species (spinach aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli; coriander aphid, Hyadaphis coriandri (Das); cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.;pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
...ned in tissue of Patella caerulea from various population in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey.Our study focused on seasonal variation of some heavy metals and aluminium in Patella caerulea L., 1758 tissues collected from eight different sampling stations of Iskenderun Bay. The concentration of heavy metal in P. caerulea tissues tended to vary significantly between season and sta...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...rnorrhyncha, were isolatedfrom three different agroecological zones of Pakistan. Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium solani, Fusarium incarnatum and Fusarium sp. along with other fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as genetically by amplifying internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). Variability among Fusarium species based on ITS s...
Wan-Long Zhu1 and Guang Yang2,*
...ining the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides genes expressions on body mass regulation under different photoperiods in Eothenomys miletus, body mass, food intake, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphet...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...composition of juvenile black fin sea bream Acanthopagrus berda was investigated. Fish juvenile (10.1±0.5 g) were collected from Sonari Channel, Hawksbay, Karachi and were brought to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×1.5 ft each). In each tank...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...of Nannochloropsis oculata and Porphyridium cruentum as natural pigment sources on skin color of tomato clownfish, Amphiprion frenatus. Two groups, each of 6 fish were fed on feed containing (69.8±9.158 mg.g-1) N. oculata (Group A), and 67.21±7.068 mg.g-1 of P. cruentum (Group B). The third group (Group C) was fed on control basal diet (34.93±29.07...
Serkan Sayiner1* and Hilal Karagul2
...ifer blood selenium and plasma vitamin E levels were generally found within adequate ranges in all regions for both seasons. We suggest that feed supplements containing selenium should be added for the Iskele region during the winter months. For the Morphou region we advise that feed supplements should be added during summer due to low levels of selenium found in roughages.
...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...ils in August at Gujranwala. The highest family richness (S=10) was reported in undisturbed soil at D.G.Khan and the lowest (S=3) was found in cultivated soils in Gujranwala, Chakwal and Bhakkar.
...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...n Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality rate of immature stages decreased as the temperature increased,...
Irshad Ahmad
... justify;">Walnut (Juglans regia) is a valuable tree for its fruit, furniture wood and ecological purposes. It is widely grown on farmlands in Northern Areas of Pakistan, where it is a cash crop ranked third in value of exports after onion and tomato. It is attacked by a number of insect pests including walnut borer (Zeuzera coffeae Nietner) that adversely affects the yield and quality of the fruit and wood. Th...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...nes morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrated that the intraspecific distance of P. websteri w...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
... were presented with complaint of persistent unilateral hind limb extension. The animals were unable to flex the limb during walk. Diagnosis was based on case history, clinical sign and clinical examination. Upward fixation of patella was diagnosed in all three animals. After careful palpation of the ligament, medial patellar desmotomy was performed in <...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
.... Some microsatellites related to the fecundity of domestic animals have been identified. In the current study, we investigated five fecundity related microsatellites, including BM1329, BM143, LSCV043, OarHH35, and OarHH55, which had been identified in sheep. We estimated their diversity and population structure in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu b...
Mahanama De Zoysa1, Si-yun Ryu1, Hyeon-cheol Kim2 and Bae Keun Park1*
...asitic crustacean was isolated from the naturally infested goldfish (Carassius auratus) purchased from commercial aquarium in Korea. Based on the morphological comparison with all Argulus species, isolated fish lice was identified as Argulus japonicus Thiele, 1899. A. japonicus is native to Asia, which also is a habitat for its typical hosts, such as goldfish and common koi carp (Cyprinus carpi...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...tural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty five honeybee colonies were used which had similar number of worker bees, brood and stored food. In order to study the foraging activity of honeybees in the field condition, the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early mo...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...iasis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in Pakistan, we first time evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available bovine F. hepatica enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG against fascioliasis in sera of small ruminants. The result of current study indicated diagnostic accuracy of test 95.6%, while sensitivity a...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...ion of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. Out of total 50 p...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
...e carried out on the population and distribution of ‘Near Threatened’ Markhor sub species Flare-horned Markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri Wagner 1839) in District Swat covering an area of 5337 km² in 2013. The population survey was conducted in two phases i.e. December 21-24 in Kalam and December 26-29 in Mankial valleys. V...
Arif Jan,* Abdul Rab, Rooh Ullah, Haroon and Ikram Ullah
...on of S. chizothorax plagiostomus was studied River Panjkora from February 2014 to January 2015. Kumrat valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The GSI values recorded monthly ranged from 2 to 13.5, the highest value was recorded in March while the lowest was recorded in April and October. We inferred that S. plagiostomus spawn twice a year, once in March-April and then in October-November.
...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...ontinuous disease surveillance and understanding of field NDV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecula

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...ption of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essential and decisive role in the virus pathology. Some studies have already reported the overexpression of these genes against IBDV infection in susceptible cells. The protection ability of ISGs to safeguard chicken cells against the virus could be potentially applied for vaccine production, better vaccination protocols and infection control in the fut...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...om animal secretions or plant exudates which include honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that hon...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...Candida sp. PS33, isolated from industrial wastewater showed tolerance to Pb (upto 35 mM), As (upto 29 mM), Cu (upto 23 mM), Cd (upto 11 mM) and Cr (upto 8 mM). Exposure to heavy metals at 0.1 mM for 2 days showed a remarkable increase in glutathione (GSH) level after As and Pb treatment in contrast to Cd, Cr and Cu exposure. GSH: GSSG ratio declined after As, Pb and Cr treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment follo...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...ks since 2005, the molecular epidemiology in mosquito (dengue vectors) is limited. Here, we investigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tar...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...e, Heterotermes indicola Wasmann is among the most devastating species causing significant loss annually in South Asia. Feeding deterrence of H. indicola among 10 different woods species were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and morta...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...untries i.e., Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal.The present study describes the first complete, inclusive description on life-history traits of B. dario, including ─ sex ratio, length-frequency distributions (LFDs), length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...l treatments, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer death. We tested whether licofelone, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, changes the survival rate and induces apoptosis in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry and statistical signific...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...n phosphine-tolerant populations. The level of total esterases, carboxyl esterases, choline esterases, acetylcholine esterases and aryl esterases were determined in 4th & 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of phosphine-tolerant populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years) of wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from various storag...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
... factor, length-weight relationship, K, L, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–frequency data. The b values of the length-weight rela...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
... function of genome methylation in invertebrates has only recently been characterized in-depth. In this study, we firstly investigated the associations of genome methylation level and growth traits inpearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata). The incidence of type II locus (hemi-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...-align: justify;">Among plant parasitic nematodes, root knot nematodes are the major problem for vegetables including eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was t...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...lobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, serum biochemistry showed significant elevation in a
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...stify;">In this study, relationship of some web parameters of the spider, Argiope trifasciata, with its body measurements was investigated. Also, role of stablimenta in efficiency of capturing prey was discussed by comparing web parameters and number of intercepted insects in decorated and non-decorated webs. For the study, 236 randomly selected webs of A. trifasciata were observed in the rice fields around the cities of Sheikhupura and Lahore, P...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
... (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among Staph. aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very st...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...h potential of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda was examined in brackish water ponds. Fish were stocked @ 1500 individuals per pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained withou...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...imate the persistency of lactation in Sahiwal cows using different persistency indices and to estimate heritability of persistency. Data on 808 Sahiwal cows maintained at the Livestock Experiment Station (LES), Jahangirabad, District Khanewal were used for the present study. Persistency of lactation was determined using five indices viz. Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick amd Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripat...
Muhammad Akbar Khan1,*, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1, Sabah Kiran1, Ayesha Riaz2 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...um minus is relatively rare in Middle Miocene site of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Chakwal district, Punjab province, Pakistan. The referred specimens comprise isolated dental elements and mandible fragments. The presence of tragulids in Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon during Middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan suggests a humid habitat with abundant cover.
...
Jiancheng Zhai, Li Gao, Yanling Xia and Heping Li*
... of this study was to isolate preliminarily differentially expressed genes in antler mesenchyme of both sexes. The genes were detected with three anchored primers and ten random primers using differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). Five differentially expressed fragments were obtained through recovery, cloning and sequencing. Three of them (Af1, Ce1, Ci2) presented a higher expression in antler mesenchyme ...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...Murree for determining relationship of different pollinator groups with crop yield. Apple is dependent on insect pollinators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bee...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...xt-align: justify;">The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) has a strong adaptability to hypoxic plateau environment. We found that the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) gene Ldh-c is expressed in plateau pika skeletal muscles. In order to shed light on the effect of LDH-C4 on the anaerobic glycolysis in p
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...emperature acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecu
Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
... with an estimated molecular mass of 17.6 kDa. The LvCypA has four β- strands. Tissue distribution of the LvCypA after real time analysis revealed that expression is in order of muscle, gill, lymphoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
... during initial and very last days of flowering due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollens and nectar on flowers. Maximum seed production as well as oil contents was obtained from sunflower plots kept under natural conditions, where bee visitors had access to sunflower blossoms. In contrast, sunflower plots covered with insect-proof bags gave minimum seed pro...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...align: justify;">Beta thalassemia syndrome are a group of hereditary blood disorders in which or absent beta globin chain synthesis, results in reduced Hemoglobin, decreased RBC production and anemia. Total 300 individuals were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender i.e ≤13 years females, >13 years females, ≤13 years and >13 years males. Height in centimeter, weight in kilogram was measured to calcula
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
... July and March 2012 in Elazig, Turkey. In this study examined variations in CPUE fishing values of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) according to different hanging ratios (E=0.5, 0.67), materials (multi-monofilament and multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofi
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...s to Gigantocotyle explanatum infection. Of the 558 slaughtered buffaloes from central Punjab, Pakistan, 18.99% were infected, and morphometric analyses were made of 115 mature amphistomes and gravid eggs with traditional microscopic methods on the basis of standardized measurements. Amphistomes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, some were sectioned in the median sagittal ...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
... approach. A total of 21 landmarks described the dorsal side of the skull and lateral side of the mandible. Individual variation in skull and mandible morphology was statistically significant for the shape (p<0.01). Sexual dimorphism as main effect was highly significant for the dorsal skull shape and the mandible shape and size (p<0.01). The comparison of mandible mean shapes using discriminant function analysis and p...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...esent experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started ...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...Crops are threatened by plant viruses worldwide as they hack the host machinery for their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in p<...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...rch. No significant correlation was observed between daily travel distance and home range (R = 0.256, n = 12, P > 0.05). The significant correlation between daily home range and daily minimum temperature may be related to energy requirements or prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differ...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...fy;">Scavenger receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum li...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...pedite the detection of plant viruses from plant species containing various forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...benign and malignant neoplasm in domestic chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assa...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...xt-align: justify;">Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasite, is one of the most worldwide parasitic infections of warm-blooded animals including man. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause serious health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a t...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...gn: justify;">Uterine prolapse is most common and important reproductive disease of dairy cattle. A crossbreed cow of 3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life with...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently healthy and freshly dead quails respectively. Bacterial isola

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...ute abdominal pain since last 12 hours was subjected for caesarean section at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan. The surgery was performed under paravertebral anesthesia at T13, L1-3 using xylocaine 2% in standing position after proper sedation. The operated site was prepared for aseptic surgical procedure. A vertical incision was given in ...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...ng seed treatment particularly halopriming with CaCl2 was the most effective for invigoration of gerbera and zinnia seeds. For Gerbera jamesonii, 25 mM CaCl2 and for Zinnia elegans, 50 mM CaCl2 proved best priming treatments followed by 100 mM KCl and 50 to 100 mM KNO3 for both tested species. This was interpreted by reduced time to 50% germination (1.2 d for gerbera and 2.4 d for zinnia), higher final germination %age (11% for gerbera and 7% for zinnia), seed...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...27±0.06 g/100g), Alanine (12.74±0.12g/100g) was found in higher concentration in aerial parts than roots while some essential amino acid, Tryptophan (6.23±0.06g/100g), Arginine (3.49±0.08 g/100g), Phenylalanine (1.77±0.08 g/100g) were recorded higher in roots as compared to the aerial parts of B. procumbens. It is concluded that aerial parts may serve as ...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...derived from four F4 populations of Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco were tested to identify effective selection indices. Experimental material was planted at two locations i.e. Mardan (E-1, E-3 and E-5) and Mansehra (E-2, E-4 and E-6) using alpha lattice design with three replicates during 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15. Heritability in broad sense was generally low for all traits except n...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...ssing activities require large amount of high quality water for processing, cleaning and cooling. Contamination of water at any point in the processing stage is likely to affect meat hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water is lacking, it is not uncommon to &...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...nt) on breeding of red tilapia. Brood fish were stocked in hapa nets suspended in cemented rectangular tanks (11×7×4 feet) . Three females (mean weight 145 g) and one male (140 g) were kept per tank with 2 replications. They were fed with commercial floating pellets having 35% crude protein at 2% body weight twice a day for 60 days and eggs were collected weekly. Results showed that fertilized eggs were found to ...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...s in various forms since last 2000 years. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of different culture microbes against each other. A total six bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pasteuralla multocida, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureius were used against each other to evaluate their antim...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...nd control(P<0.05). Relative organ weights and relative carcass yield of treatment groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). The Relative length of the intestine of the treatment groups showed significant difference (P<0.05). Supplementation of herbal additives and antibiotic had a positive effect on bacterial enumeration of Ileum (P<0.05). The use of antibiotic caused ...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...rence of Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) in finished commercial broiler feed and among the isolated strains of A. flavus having capacity to produce aflatoxin was investigated in this study. Finished commercial broiler feed samples (n=96) were collected from broiler chicken farms in and around Quetta...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...d non-hand weeding) and plant density in four levels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds caused quantitative and qualitative reduction in alfalfa. Alfalfa in the second cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant produced the highest fresh and dry yield in the second cutting. However, wee...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...ated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic typ...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...>Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) and Spodotera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) was studied on larval competition, survival and development of a gregarious ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the s...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...e (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis. It further provides a brief impression of ALB’s biological characteristics, ecology, chemical ecosystem, economic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packin...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...rus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbreds, infected with live strain PED virus (PEDV). Several gene ontology (GO) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) are also identified by RNA-seq. The analyzed transcriptome provides the 1805 DEGs and gene networks involving cellu
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
...arms located at Potohar Plateau in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of399 serum samples from indeginous and exotic cattle were tested for brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and multiplex real-time PCR for Brucella sp., Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. A total of 20 (5.01%) samples were found seropositive by RBPT and 19 (4.76%) by SAT, howeve...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...rehensive study at molecular level to determine the main causative serotype of 2013 DENV outbreak in Pakistan. Overall 703 serologically positive suspected patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females and 489 were male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype 1, 2 and 3 respectively...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...e prevalence of Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal P
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
... was recorded. Adult population of the Norway rat dominated the juvenile during all the seasons of the year. Data on the body weight reflected that the males were heavier than the females in all the four seasons of the year; the heaviest males were observed during the winter season. Reproductive activity revealed that the males were recorded reproductively active throughout the year while more than 50% specimens of females were recorded inactive throughout the...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...1, 9 or 12 exhibited similar pattern antibody profiles, however, an increase in the mean titer of antibodies was recorded from 17 and onwards. Furthermore, on day 39 of age, the birds of all groups including control were challenged with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also ...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...ility among effected populations. Pakistan was declared dracunculaisis-free in 1996. The present study is a follow-on to the declared eradication of dracunculiasis in Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan through investigating disease recurrences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional hou...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...nfestation in commercial layer, a double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. For therapeutic trials, the 80 birds (n= 60 infested with ticks, n= 20 healthy birds) were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), respectively. Group C was kept as positive control whereas the ticks free birds were kept in gr...
Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Shahid Munir2 and Irfan Ahmed2
...%) against wild boar population in Fatima Jinnah Park, Islamabad. A total of 1838 kg bait was applied at 32 bait points, out of which 1627 kg was consumed by wild boars during 17 nights. The consumption of bait increased asymptotically and attained peak on the 7th night. The bait in-take, external and internal pathological symptoms were similar as has been described for warfarin...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...were whelped by dams regularly vaccinated with high quality inactivated rabies vaccines. Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Technique (RFFIT) revealed mRVNA titer (>0.5 IU/mL) in 29 puppies while 48 puppies showed mRVNA titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not reveal mRVNA in 23 puppies that were declared lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basis of fin...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

...e good or bad effect on plants grown in those soils.

...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...parison to 200 mg/kg Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Optimum cooking time, its weight and swelling index were remained same at different level of oil carotenoids tomato peel powder when compared with control. On the other hand spaghetti cooking becomes decrease by increase of carotenoids level in spaghetti when compared with control. Organoleptic evaluation of spaghetti prepared from lycopene revealed maximum score of smell, taste, odors, color texture and ove...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...m, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were significantly higher when crop was grown from seeds stored in polythene bag as compared to cloth bag. Interaction of genotypes and seed sources indicated that highest ...

John G. Bruno

...amers were capable of emulating rickettsial antigens to enable sensitive detection of rickettsia exposure in humans who have seroconverted. Such anti-idiotypic aptamer antigens might also serve as rickettsial vaccines, if fully developed. The top five highest affinity R. rickettsii and top five R. typhi anti-Fab aptamers as assessed by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) screening ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...Extension Officer (AEO) plays the role of a hub in agricultural development and covers all the areas of Agriculture. The present study was carried out in all the 24 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to investigate the agricultural mechanization competencies of AEOs. Sum total of 111 AEOs were contacted for data collection. Primary data were collected from the selected sample of AEOs by mailing the questionnaires. The results showed that overwhelming majority of ...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2). The full length sequence of HA gene was codon optimized to the chicken biased codons and subcloned into the pCAGGS plasmid vector under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter. The in vitro expression of recombinant p<...

Waqar Islam

...reasing every day particularly in the countries embedding tropical and subtropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Th...
Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2,*, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, Khalid Javed Iqbal4 and FarmanUllah5
...=3) were captured from Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during a three years survey extending from June 2010 through May 2013. Mean body mass of the captured R. ferrumequinum specimens was 18.45 ± 0.35 g, head and body length was 60.11 ± 1.42 mm and forearm length was 60.01 ± 1.41 mm. Similarly, average greatest length of skull was 23.35 ± 0.20 mm while the total length of baculum of a...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...xt-align: justify;">Mycoplasma infections in gallinaceous birds are reported throughout the world and are caused by either Mycoplasma gallisepticum or Mycoplasma synoviae. Hence, in the present study we have detected Mycoplasma spp. from tissue samples collected from clinically sick (60 samples) and apparently healthy broiler birds (30 samples) in a comm...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ces like roadsides, wasteland and water ways resulting in loss of local biodiversity. Field survey of district Swabi (Peshawar Valley) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was carried out during May-June, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by part...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...ted to evaluate the germplasms imported from United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), United State of America (USA) primarily for Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease with promising local varieties tolerant to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germp
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...al events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broad distributions in East China, while M. m. domestics is a newly arrived subspecies currently restricted to Shanghai, i...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...ne the phylogeographic relationships of Microtus fortis in China, we investigated 84 individuals collected from five populations. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) and control region (CR) were sequenced and 49 haplotypes were observed. No shared haplotype was found among different geographic populations. High Fst values among the popu
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
... insecticide, this study lays foundation for the development of stigmasterol from the Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengas nontoxic and pollution-free pesticides that can be released to the environment. The toxicity test of stigmasterol against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro showed that stigmasterol was toxic under 0.5% concentration. Treatment under this condition also showed mite mortality of 16.67% within 12 h and 23.33% within 24 h. ...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...ram, India and infected plants showed declined symptoms and poor fruit yield. Infested plants displayed stunting and yellowing and thick-root symptoms. The association of the root knot nematode species was identified based on observations on morphology of different life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host different...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
... and 60% DM basis) to replace yellow corn and wheat bran in the concentrate feed mixtures on digestibility, blood and ruminal parameters, growth performance, meat analysis and feed intake of growing lambs. Fifty one Barki lambs with body weight of 30±0.57 kg; in three groups (17 animals, each). Experimental rations were composed of concentrate and clover hay in a 60:40 concentrate: ...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...anterior intestine. Cytoplasm contained abundant mitochondria and pinocytotic vesicles. Epithelium of posterior intestine was thin, translucent and squamous with dense blood capillary network underground, while there were no folds on mucous membrane surface. Distance between blood capillary network and intestinal cavity was 1.95±0.34 μm. Respiration epithelial cells of pos...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
... tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is in many respects more similar to primates than rodents are. To demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of using the tree shrew as an AD model, we examined how well the model recapitulates features of the disease. Injecting animals intraperitoneally with d-galactose to induce acute senility, and then injecting t...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
...;">Green tea extract is plant–dervied natural antioxidant. The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidative effect of green tea extract on the cryopreserved bull semen. Experiments were carried out on Achai breeding bulls of similar age at the Semen Production Unit, Harichand, District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Collection of semen was done using artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks. Semen was e...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...enetic parameters particularly heritability estimates for a trait of interest help plant breeders to plan their long term breeding programs more accurately. This study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of heritability for flowering and maturity attributes along with plant and ear height parameters in four popcorn popula
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...t threats to the dog population, around the globe. To ascertain the current situation and genetics of CPVs in Pakistan, a total of fifty samples from sick dogs suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were positive in PCR. Sequence analysis of the selected positi...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...the utilization of P by plants. This research was conducted during wheat cropping season of year 2010 and 2011 and it consisted of determination of the residual effect of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs o...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...-align: justify;">Women play important role in livestock farming in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A survey was conducted in district Mardan to determine women’s participation in livestock farming and to investigate factors affecting their participation. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 rural Union Councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through fa...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ity of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recommended dose of fertilizer and full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) (No PGPR, PGPR-1, PGPR-2 and PGPR-1 + PGPR-2). The PGPR used in this study were pre-isolated and characterized, taken from ...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

...ason. On artificial inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, the fundamental agent of bacterial leaf blight, most of the studied rice accessions and the two commercial rice cultivars displayed susceptible reactions. Seven rice accessions viz. UoA-2, UoA-5, UoA-11, UoA-48, UoA-53, UoA-102, and UoA-123 showed moderate levels of resistance while eleven rice accessions viz. UoA-4, UoA-6, UoA-22, UoA-41, UoA-60, UoA-67, Uo...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
... physiology provides a balance between leaf temperature, leaf energy exchange and photosynthesis. The experiment was undertaken to study the association of leaf related traits i.e. leaf area (LA), leaf angle position (LP), number of lobes per leaf (NL), leaf chlorophyll contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...5-16. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangement keeping pulverization viz. single tiller P1, double tiller P2, triple tiller P3 and mould board plow P4 followed by single rotavator in main plots while sowing methods i.e. Raised Bed Sowing S1and Flat Bed Sowing S2 in the subplots. The results showed higher WUE...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...y in the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region of Northern Pakistan. However, the growing trends of crops cultivation in the high mountains of HKH region have largely transformed this subsistence livestock production in to commercial agricultural system and shaped an uncertain environment that is not suitable for both landless nomadic pastoralism and ecological sustainability. This study refl...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...ing the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species composition along grazing gradient in fenced and unfenced grazing area in the Gaborone North Region. For each study area, two parallel transects measuring 1000 m radiating from the water points (borehole) we...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...effects of high density plantation on growth and yield of citrus (Kinnow and Musambi) grown under drip irrigation at Postgraduate Agriculture Research Station (PARS) Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Plants were grown at three planting distances as T1 (11 x 22ft), T2 (11 x 11ft) and T3 (22 x 22ft). T1 (11x22ft) wa...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...y of chlorogenic acid isolated from apricot cv. Habi, against different food borne pathogens and quantification of the chlorogenic acid (CA) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The chlorogenic acid was isolated using resin. The recovered amount of compound was calculated. Aliquots of the extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against differen...
Ahmad Khan1, Raza Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Fayyaz Hussain1,Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar2, Jalal-Ud-Din3
...was conducted at NARC, Islamabad to evaluate the effect of humic substances (HSs) derived from coal, sunflower, and maize waste materials on onion yield. Four HSs rates; 0, 20, 30 and 40 kg/ha were applied to onion (variety Red Swat) transplanted earlier to field (plot size=1.2×0.8 m2). Results showed that maximum bulb yield of 25.1 and 24.5 t/ha were obtained with application of p
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...onducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), taste, decay ...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...ear i.e. 1980. Water availability in the crop growth periods and fertilizer application (today or in the future) will certainly increase production. This scenario demands devising adaptation strategies for farmers to be made available, this should be the key policy intervention of the government to cater with the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer managemen...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...: justify;">Study on population magnitude of the Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) was undertaken during 2015 on cucurbit crops in district Hyderabad. The studies were carried out at two discrete localities, Jeay Shah and Dehli Farm, in three different crops i.e., bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) using cue-lure baited traps. The male lure bai...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
... protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) on the toxicity of the liver induced by D-Galactosamine (D-GaIN) in rats. With this in mind, the rats were categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative c...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...iously regarded as molecular fossils, non-functional by-products of genome evolution. However, it has been indicated by several lines of evidences that some pseudogenes are active. Using current data of NCBI we have retrieved 65 pseudogenes from the genome sequence of human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain 26695. Computational analysis of the genome showed 6 transcriptionally active pseudogenes that can produce stable mR...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...nt of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subsequently by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) and finally the use of molecu

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...de of garlic bulbs and allamanda leaves tremendously increased germination and reduced damping-off, seed rot, seedling blight and tip over of vegetables (egg-plant, tomato, chilli) in the nursery and leaf blight, anthracnose, fruit rot, root knot and leaf curl/mosaic of tomato and carrot in the field. Aqueous solution of garlic and allamanda tablet sprayed at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 c...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
...-08 in some organic formulations like vermicompost, leaf manure, rice bran and FYMand also their combinations with two oil cakes, neem and mustard cake. The growth was estimated in terms of colony forming unit (c.f.u.)/g of substrate up to 120 days at 30 days interval. In all organic products or their amendment with oil cakes c.f.u. increased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 12...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...ions of Karnataka for isolation of chilli microflora. From these samples, 94 fungal and 89 bacterial isolates were derived, which included 50 isolates of fungi and 44 isolates of bacteria from phylloplane and pomoplane, 44 isolates of endophytic fu...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...era, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod bore...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...arcely cultivated in Bangladesh. During cultivation, the coccinellid beetle,Epilachna varivestis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) severely attacked the foliages and florets in the capitulum (inflorescence). Other pests encountered were Spilosoma obliqua (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae),Homoeosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Phyticidae),Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Monolepta signata(Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...of A. alternata and flusilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium sp.in mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. There wa...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...erval in such a way that last spray fell 12 days prior to harvest to control post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...d to investigate the population dynamics of the mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. on different 42 cultivars of Indian mustard (B. juncea). The results revealed that the population of L. erysimi exhibited negative correlation with maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humid...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
... potato. The minimum population of aphids, whitefly and epilachna beetle was observed in the treatment T which received soil application of phorate followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos,imadicloprid and cartap hydrochloride, respectively at 40, 55 and 70 DAP than other treatments. Maximum yield of healty potato tuber was recorded in the plot treated with chlorpyriphos before planting and f...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...al number of fruits per plant and moderately lower fruit fly incidence,BCSM-4 andBCSM- 8 may possibly perform better than the other genotypes in the lower Gangetic plain if sown during end of January.
 

 

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M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...up to November. The correlation coefficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum re

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...ngal to evaluate the population dynamics of aphids with the help of yellow pan trap and yellow sticky trap. The population of aphid catches was quite lower in yellow pan trap than yellow sticky trap. Aphids were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...t is effective against a large number of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal gr...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
... to understand aphid population dynamics during different phases of growth of rainfed vis-à-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied from 19 November to 3 December, depending upon dates of sowing done during 1 October to 5 Novembe...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...tify;">Termitidae is the largest family of termites. The workers of the subfamily Macrotermitinae have the extra-ordinary phenomena of making fungus combs inside the termitophiles. Considering the consistency of fungus-bed in the termitophiles, an attempt has been made to observe the morphological changes of nymphs while they stayed within the fungus comb. Biological attributes indicated that Odontotermes proformosanus are polymorphic in nature and have exopte...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...used by Aeginetia pedunculata (Roxb.) Wall. (Orobanchaceae) is endemic in the command area of Plassey Sugar Mill in the districts of Nadia and Murshidabad in West Bengal. It spreads through water-and soil-borne seeds. With the objective of developing location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crop...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...and six rhizobacteria isolates from the rhizosphere of vegetable crops was studied for suppression of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth mediu...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...egetable crops viz., eggplant, lady's finger, papaya, basil etc. by citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has been noticed in Bangladesh. It is mainly a pest of citrus and coffee crops but now it has become polyphagous in nature. Based on laboratory studies on immature and mature fruits...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...mber of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly pos...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...ed by the nature of the plantation. A good number of hemipteran insect pests occur in betelvine ecosystem which dwindle betelvine yield potentiality. Among these, the polyphagous betelvine blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004....

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...w vein disease on Calendula officinalis L. was transmitted from naturally infected C. officinalis to healthy seedlings of C. officinalis through whiteflies not through sap inoculation. A single whitefly could transmit the virus and showed 20.55% infection and fifteen whiteflies were required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...toid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

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S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...ost.), the primary food plant of muga silkworm, (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) growing mainly in North Eastern region and Uttaranchal State in India. India is unique in producing the golden muga silk and has monopoly in global silk market grows up to 20-25 meters and survives for 18-20 years. Pollarding of Som plant at 6 ft height is a common practice in North Eastern region of India for co...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...t Biological control of plant diseases seems to be the best alternative for plant disease control. It is ecofriendly, reliable, cost effective and is an integral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...num. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to compare the treatments in preventing the intensity of foot rot. The results revealed that minimum foot rot disease occurred where four drenching and...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...ol of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola by spraying three fungicides (carbendazim at 0.1%, mancozeb at 0.025% and blitox at 0.25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biomonas-a formu

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
...to under five different planting dates (P1 to P5) was carried out for two consecutive years, 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India. Kufri Chandramukhi was planted in five dates of planting starting from 3rd week of November with one week interval upto 3rd week of December with a spacing of 60×20 cm. The trial was la<...

D. Sharmah, K.C. Deka and A.K. Phukan

Field evaluation of efficacy of some botanical dust against rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.)
...iatus L.) and their formulations and Malathion as standard insecticide were evaluated against the rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.) during 2000-2001 on the basis of per cent reduction under field condition. The per cent reduction in number of rice bug adults due to neem seed kernel powder, neem seed kernel powder + multani powder, multani powder, neem leaf powder, neem leaf powder + multani powder, neem leaf powder + as...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...y;">Post application population proliferation (build-up) and spread of Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride in three different types (sterilized, solarised and natural) clay loam soil at 50% water holding capacity (pH 6.5) was studied both under laboratory and field conditions following two types of delivery systems, through org...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...aves along the veins and later disperse to the unripe fruits rendering them unmarketable and inedible. The damage appeared to be in the range between 70 and 95 per cent. Generally young plants die due to heavy infestation and colony formation of the mealybug. P. marginatus is a polyphagous pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic val...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...wed that the incubation, larval, pupal and adult longevity periods were 2 to 5 days, 5 to 7 days, 6 to 9 days, 37 to 41 days in June-July and 4 to 6 days, 16 to 19 days, 17 to 21 days, 23 to 32 days in August-October, respectively. Correlation with individual weather factors revealed that each of maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, r...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...rown as a monoculture on large contiguous areas. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of several notorious pests such as insects, mites, nematodes, diseases and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bang...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
... an important medicinal plant in the family Asclepiadaceae, indigenous to India. In West Bengal, we observed the herb to be heavily infested by a defoliator pest, Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). A study was conducted in the field and laboratory of All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine (AICRP on MAPB) at Bidhan Chandr...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...ng those root rot and collar rot are important and R. solani has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with o...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...V) disease in different plant spacing 30 x 30 cm, 50 x 30 cm, 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm and 60 x 40 cm and using two cultivars, i.e., cv. Parbhani Kranti and Local indicated that the first appearance of symptom was earlier in cv. Local and late in cv. Parbhani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infe...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
... was studied on brinjal plant and sprouted potato tubers in the laboratory. The female nymphs moulted three times for becoming adults while the male took four moultings. The female and male nymphs completed development in 14.45± 0.96 days and 19.53±1 days, respectively on brinjal plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively o...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...ate 10 G @ 15kg ha-1 at planting plus drenching the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pest (T5) was found most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment at planting with phorate 10 G @15kg ha-1 with addition drenching the ridges with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.004% (2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 ) than other treatments as ...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...2011. The experiment was laid in RBD with seven treatment schedules and three replications. Among all the treatments soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with imidacloprid before transpl...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...atore since 2004. The onslaught by the new invasive mealybug (PMB)-Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forced many farmers to even abandon papaya crop cultivation altogether. Considering the drast...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...justify;">Botanicals or plant extracts from Cathranthus roseus, Coleus aromaticus , Manilkara zapota and Azadirachta indica was studied by poisoned food technique, seed germination and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the r...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
... week, with the peak population on 6th standard week and the aphid disappeared after 10th standard week. Among the different chemical insecticides evaluated for their bio-efficacy against L. erysimi, Dimethoate 30EC and Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC were proved to be more effective. The plots treated with Dimethoate and Oxydemeton-methyl recorded minimum aphid infestation in most of the observations, there by produced more yield ranging from 1151.6 to 1310.3 kg seed/...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...garding the biology, population dynamics and management of this pest. Branch gall is a univoltine species. Emergence of adults from gall could be found from 2nd week of February, which continued up to 2nd week of March. Incubation, larval and pupal period lasted for 3-5 days, 315 days and 30-45 days, respectively. Eggs were laid singly throughout the you...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia West Bengal in two consecutive years (2009-10 and 2010-11) to study the effect of different weed management measures (e.g. hand weeding, herbicides, mulching etc.) on the yield of crops in sequence and cost effectiveness of different weed control measures. Rice exhibited the maximum yield when treated with two hand weedings, but it may be profitably replaced by the application of...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...re prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of sulphur and hexaconazole thus characterized were estimated for the presence of active ingredient in the formulation adopting analytical techniques like Gas Chromatography / High Pressure Liq...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...currents. Female usually lays 100 to 600 eggs. Eggs are greenish-yellow in colour measuring 0.120 cm diameter and laid in an ovisac that 3-4 times the body length. Eggs are covered with white waxy substances developed ventrally by the adult female. Egglaying is continued up to 2 weeks and 150-200 eggs were deposited during this period. The life cycle is completed within 29 days at an avera...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the old alluvial zone of North Bengal and their biocontrol activity were tested in dual culture and found effective against soil-borne plant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the iso

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...zeb 80WP (mancozeb + metalaxyl) to control of dieback disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh. The pathogen, C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the dieback infected tea twigs on PDA medium. Mycelial blocks of the isolated pathogen were transferred to PDA plates amended with sedomil 72WP (mancoze...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine treatments replicated thrice. The predominant weed flora in the experimental field of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis and Fumaria purviflora. The results revealed that the maximum tuber yield and return per rupee invested vis-à-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the mini...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...ncea L.). Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments. Insecticides used in the experiments were imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 27g a.i/ha, lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC at 25g a.i/ha, chlorpyriphos 20% EC at 375g a.i/ha, dichlorvos 75% EC at 375g a.i/ha, thiamethoxam 25% WG at 27g a.i/ha, dimethoate 30% EC at 375g a.i/ha and chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC (Canon) at 375g a.i/ha. Chlorpyriphos (93.5...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...region to the other. The latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. This study was conducted during the 2010 and 2011 cropping season at the ...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...le concentrate. The formulation of 10EC at 0.25% was standardized as the best emulsifiable concentration for use against the pathogen. The pre inoculation spray of the formulation was observed to produce 63.62% reduction in lesion height caused by the sheath blight pathogen. Two isoforms of poly phenol oxidase, PPO 1 and PPO 3 were observed to be induced only in Ganosol 10EC sprayed p