Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 in Poultry in North Africa: Current Status

Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H9N2 in Poultry in North Africa: Current Status

Khaled Kaboudi* 

Department of Poultry Farming and Pathology, National Veterinary Medicine School of Tunisia, 2020 Sidi Thabet, University of Manouba, Tunisia. 


Low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtype virus is considered among important respiratory pathogens in poultry worldwide. It was isolated from many species of domestic and wild birds. Infection in commercial poultry flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are still little known. This review summarized the epidemiological situation of H9N2 subtype in poultry in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. Human infection was reported in Egypt and serosurveys programs showed high positivity, particularly in poultry workers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the most of H9N2 viruses circulating in North Africa were among the G1-lineage group. The presence of mammalian and human genetic markers were reported in several H9N2 strains, indicating possible risk for public health. Control of LPAI H9N2 subtype infection is currently based on biosecurity and the implementation of vaccination in some countries. Regional control strategy needs to be performed. Creation of regional surveillance network is highly recommended.  

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews


Vol. 9, Iss. 2, Pages 87-184


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe