The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758), is a notorious pest of honey bee colonies that has negatively affected the global apicultural industry. Olfactory cues influence the behavior of wax moth, where males attract females, making them an ideal candidate for pheromone studies. However, the molecular mechanism of chemoreception in G. mellonella pertaining to sex pheromone recognition has not been elucidated. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was conducted on the antennae of male and female greater wax moths to assess the differential expression patterns of chemosensory genes and better understand the underlying olfactory mechanism. In the results, a total of 121 chemosensory gene transcripts were identified, including 37 odorant-binding proteins, 35 chemosensory proteins, 33 olfactory receptors, 14 ionotropic receptors and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins. The expression patterns of these genes were determined using the estimated fragments per kilobase of transcript per million fragments mapped. Among the 114 DEGs, 66 were expressed exclusively in the female antennae, whereas the remaining were expressed predominantly in the male antennae. Additionally, five chemosensory-related genes (OBP69a-like, OBP72-like, CSP7, CSP10 and OR29) were differentially expressed between the two samples. In conclusion, the study lay a foundation for understanding the olfactory functions of chemosensory genes in G. mellonella, which can help to control and prevent the damage caused by this pest.