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Geno-Toxic Appraisal of Widely Used Food Color Additives on Model Plant Allium cepa Root Tip Cells

Geno-Toxic Appraisal of Widely Used Food Color Additives on Model Plant Allium cepa Root Tip Cells

Jabeen Farheen1,2*, Simeen Mansoor1 and Maria Abid1

1Department of Genetics, KU Circular Road, Faculty of Science, University of Karachi, Main University Road, Karachi-75270, Sindh, Pakistan. 2School of Material Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.
 
*Correspondence | Jabeen Farheen, Department of Genetics, KU Circular Road, Faculty of Science, University of Karachi, Main University Road, Karachi-75270, Sindh, Pakistan; Email: jabeenfarheen@hotmail.com; jabeenfarheen87@zstu.edu.cn

ABSTRACT

The frequent use of meal and beverages having food color additives (FCAs) may cause mutation in humans’ proto-oncogenes which leads to carcinogenicity. The current findings aimed to evaluate the genotoxic impact of widely used azo FCAs on the cell cycle by using onion as a model plant. The study was designed in a complete randomized design where the grown onion roots were exposed to 0%, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% concentration of FCA for 120 hours for macroscopic and 36 h for microscopic evaluation. The onion root tips morpho-physiology was severely affected as the concentration of FCAs increased. The macroscopic analysis manifested that allura red had 95% broken-ended extremely thin and transparent root tips at 1% concentration. In the microscopic analysis, FCAs induced eight different kinds of chromosomal aberrations in which allura red significantly induced the highest frequencies of abnormal prophase, sticky metaphase, c-mitosis, sticky anaphase, and laggard anaphase at each concentration. While, dislocated metaphase, forwarded anaphase, and bridge anaphase were only found in sunset yellow, tartrazine, and fast green, respectively. The use of evaluated FCAs especially allura red in foodstuff, cosmetics, and skincare products can cause cancer in humans.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 53, Iss. 4, Pages 1201-1601

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