Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3
Brown leaf spot (Bipolaris oryzae) (BLS) is the serious emerging threat to rice crop. It causes heavy yield losses upto 6 to 90% depending upon the disease triangle. It has become a great concern for the rice-growing areas to find better management strategies under the fluctuation of the climate conditions. Different management practices (cultural, biological, chemical, induce resistance, nutrient management, natural byproducts, and resistant cultivars) are used by farmers in different field areas of the world. The use of the resistant source is the simple, reliable, operative and cost-effective strategy to control the diseases and maximize the yield in limited time. Due to changing the environmental conditions and appearance of the disease epidemic, the use of fungicides judiciously is the alternate significant method for quick and efficient control of diseases and improving the yield of rice. While, the use of phytoextracts and antagonist are considered to be safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective economically and biodegradable. The use of plant activators as another new strategy that activates the defense system of plants and reduces the disease. The plants which are scarce nutrients are more prone to disease as compared to nutrient deficient. The pathogen damage is compensating by a specific nutrient that reduces the disease through tolerance. Good management practices are those which include all possible combinations of cultural, biological, chemical, induce resistance, nutrient management, natural byproducts, and resistant cultivars. The best control of this disease in current climate scenario is the use of the integrated different management approaches to cope the emerging threat of this disease for food security in future.
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