Respiratory epithelium is one of the mucosal epithelial which functions as protective and adaptive barrier against continuously inhaled substances including pathogens and allergens. Current research about mechanism of disease and drug development is conducted in 2D cell culture or in animal models. The 2D cell culture models poorly imitate the condition in vivo and provide limited utility due to mimic tissue physiology in multicellular organisms. Although animal models can be used as pre-clinical tools for new-agent screening prior to clinical testing, there is a growing awareness of the limitations of animal research and its inability to make reliable predictions for human clinical trials. Recently, 3D cell culture produced by researchers to improve better mimic tissue physiology of better in vitro cell culture model. It is may enable microbiologists to create infection models that combine respiratory tissue culture engineering with the virus-relevant complexity of in vivo models. Mechanism of infection disease have shown that the normal microbiota in host health has remarkably improved our understanding of the interactions between microbiota and invading pathogens. Commensal bacteria as microbiome can potentially influence mechanism of disease either hindering or promoting the viral infection and sometimes aggravate the disease. In this review, we discuss the histology of respiration epithelium and mucous layers, various microbiome that contribute to the interaction between the host and microbes against infection on the mucus layer in top of the respiratory epithelium, and technology that can be developed in tissue engineering techniques for reconstruction to mimic the microenvironment in respiratory tissue engineering.
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