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Analysis of Diversity and Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle Feces by Shotgun Metagenomic Approach

Analysis of Diversity and Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle Feces by Shotgun Metagenomic Approach

Azhar Ali1, Faheem Ahmed Khan2, Wu Di3, Huang Chunjie3, Muhammad Rizwan Yousaf1, Bilal Ahmed1, Farwa Shakeel1, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari1, Windu Negara2, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko Prasetiyono1*

1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Research Center for Animal Husbandry, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta Pusat 10340, Indonesia; 3Institute of Reproductive Medicine, School of Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China.
 
Azhar Ali and Faheem Ahmed Khan are contributed equally to this work.
 
*Correspondence | Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko Prasetiyono, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia; Email: bambangwhep@ymail.com

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is a significant public health issue, and animals have a vital role in the development and preservation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This work employed shotgun metagenomics to examine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present in the feces of dairy cattle. The presence of resistance genes in the feces indicates that certain microorganisms carry several resistance genes, which are often found in close proximity and originate from various species. Our findings indicates that the gastrointestinal system of dairy cows harbors a repertoire of 216 antimicrobial resistance genes, which are presumed to confer resistance to 23 distinct antibiotics. The identified ARGs were associated with tetracyclines, macrolides, bacitracin, quinolones, β-lactams, and aminoglycosides, which correspond to antibiotics often administered to both animals and humans. An important discovery in this study is the recognition of Enterobacteriaceae as the predominant family in the phylum Proteobacteria, together with enterococcus species from the phylum Firmicutes, which possess numerous antibiotic resistance genes associated with health risks. The presence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria underscores the significance of using suitable antibiotic therapy to minimize the dissemination of resistance in both animals and humans.
 
Keywords | ARGs, Shotgun metagenomics, Dairy cows, Antibiotics

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

August

Vol. 12, Iss. 8, pp. 1410-1621

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