Root rot is very drastic disease prevalent in major cotton producing areas of Pakistan. Complex nature of disease due to root rot fungi and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as in soil samples (81.7%) collected from infected fields. Among nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) chitwood showed the maximum frequency percentage (72.3%). Results confirmed the presence of fungi and nematodes interacting each other to enhance the disease. Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) and Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) (alone and in combination) were used as bio-control agents against isolated pathogens at three different concentration viz., R, R/2 and R/4. Combination of bio agents (T+P) gave maximum results at R concentration against R. bataticola and M. incognita.
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