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Genetic Diversity Within and Among Populations of Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Revealed by RAPD Markers

Genetic Diversity Within and Among Populations of Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Revealed by RAPD Markers

Tanvir Hussain1,2*, Kafeel Ahmad2, Muhammad Bilal Zia1, Hammad Uddin1, Khalid Hussain1, Muhammad Inamulla Khan3 and Said Akhtar Khan1

1Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 2Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 3Department of Environmental Sciences, The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

*Correspondence | Tanvir Hussain, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Email:, 


This study was carried out to explore the genetic diversity both within and across the populations of Himalayan Spruce growing in the dry temperate and moist temperate forests of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan using random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) DNA method. Five study sites were selected and 20 samples (needles) from each site were collected. Six RAPD markers produced 92 amplicons with sizes range 250-2000bp. Among all studied populations 100% polymorphism was observed. The highest percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB=82.61%), observed number of alleles (na=1.82), effective number of alleles (Ne=1.34), Shannon index (S=0.33) and Nei,s genetic diversity ( He=0.21) were scored for ANP (Ayubia National Park) population whereas the lowest (PPB=60.87%; na= 1.60; Ne=1.214; S=0.2290; He=0.1413) were found in BOR (Bomborate) population. This revealed that the greatest genetic diversity existed in moist temperate forests compared to dry temperate forests. The average geneflow (Nm) among populations was 5.45. According to Nei,s genetic distances the most genetically close (0.0131) were NAR (Naran) and BOR populations whereas the most apart (0.033) ANP and MLJ (Malam Jabba) populations while cluster analysis among the populations clearly showed two groups i.e., BOR with NAR and BAR with MLJ. The population of ANP was grouped separately with the cluster of BAR and MLJ. The AMOVA analysis revealed high genetic variation (90%) within and low (10%) among populations. Further, Mantel’s test explored that geographic distribution was not correlated to genetic distances among the populations. The investigation explored that RAPD approach can detect the genetic diversity among five populations of Himalayan Spruce and high variations indicating extensive gene flow. This adaptive genetic variability has significant promise for the management and conservation of this species in the future. 

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol.40, Iss. 1, Pages 01-262


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