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Comparative Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica), Levamisole and Combination of Levamisole, Oxyclozanide and Cobalt against Gastrointestinal Parasites: A Way Forward for Public (One) Health

Comparative Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica), Levamisole and Combination of Levamisole, Oxyclozanide and Cobalt against Gastrointestinal Parasites: A Way Forward for Public (One) Health

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Tariq Usman4, Bilques Bano5, Nazia Rubab6, Syed Tasadak Mehdi7, Muhammad Wasim Iqbal8, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar9, Hira Hameed10

1Federal Government, Islamabad, Pakistan
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
3Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
4Services and General Administration, Civil Secretariat, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
5School Education Department Government of the Punjab, Pakistan
6Population Welfare Department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
7Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan
8Massey University, New Zealand
9Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China
10The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
Corresponding author: Muhammad Ali Raza


The article illustrates the in vivo anthelmintic activity of seeds of Azadirachta indica and other synthetic drugs comparatively compare and to justify the said seed consumption as an anthelmintic by the customary therapists of animals in South-Asia. Crude aqueous extract (CAE) from seeds of A. indica at the dosage of 2 g/kg of body weight,  levamisole HCL at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg and 3.0% oxyclozanide BP (vet), 1.5 levamisole hydrochloride BP (vet) and 0.382% cobalt sulphate in combination were administered orally to the cattle naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. The study design also included infected but un-medicated and uninfected and un-medicated controls.  Faecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were carried out pre and post treatments to analyze the anthelmintic activity. There was significant difference among the various treatment (p< 0.05) and on various days (p<0.05). The highest decrease in the egg per gram was depicted by levamisole; the reduction in EPG was 99.05% as compared to day zero (pre treatment), the lowest reduction of fecal egg per gram was revealed by CAE of neem, the reduction in eggs per gram was 11.25% as compare with day zero and levamisole, oxyclozanide and cobalt in combination represented 98.8% reduction in faecal egg count on day 21. The average decrease in mean larval count was 12.8, 97.97 and 95.9% by neem, levamisole and combination of levamisole, oxyclozanide and cobalt respectively on day 21. As a whole, the highest effect or highest reduction in mean larval count was delineated by group levamisole on day 21.
Novelty Statement | In vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica seeds (crude aqueous extract) against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle (eggs and larvae along with identification) pertaining to Public (One) Health has categorically been studied for the first time in Lahore with a proper treatment protocol and comparison with levamisole, oxyclozanide and the combination of both drugs.

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Punjab University Journal of Zoology


Vol.38, Iss. 2, Pages 137-236


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