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Immunological Responses of Chitosan and Aluminum Phosphate Nanoparticles as Novel Adjuvants for Inactivated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine in Sheep

Immunological Responses of Chitosan and Aluminum Phosphate Nanoparticles as Novel Adjuvants for Inactivated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine in Sheep

Mohamed A. Hussein1, Bahgat A. Abd El-Rehman2, Kareem A. Eldin2, Mohamed Fouad Mansour1* 

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt; 2Rift Valley Fever Department, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.

*Correspondence | Mohamed Fouad Mansour, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt; Email: mafouad@zu.edu.eg 

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a significant process for stimulating the immune response against infection. Adjuvant of vaccine is an important factor in enhancing the immune response. It must be safe, inexpensive and easy to prepare. This study aimed to develop a new RVF virus vaccine with chitosan nanoparticles and aluminum phosphate nanoparticles as adjuvants and evaluate their impact on biochemical, cellular and humoral immune response in sheep, The prepared vaccines were sterile, safe, emulsion is stable and validity within acceptable limit 0.02 EDF50/ml up till 15th month with AlP-NPsV and AlHV except Ch-NPsV that was valid up to 16th month. Lymphocyte count increased from the 1st week post-vaccination till the peak at 5th, 4th and 3th months in groups vaccinated with Ch-NPsV, AlP-NPsV and AlHV respectively. Conversely, neutrophil count decreased in vaccinated groups. No change was detected between groups in serum kidney function enzymes. Cytokine profile including IL-2 was markedly increased from 1st day after inoculation and elevated moderately till arrived to the peak at the 5th, 7th and 10th days post-vaccination in groups vaccinated with Ch-NPsV, AlP-NPsV and AlHV respectively. The results IFN-γ mRNA expression level was consistent with the results of cytokine profile including IL-2. Neutralizing antibody was increased from the 2nd week post-vaccination and reached the peak at 5th, 4th and 3th months in groups vaccinated with Ch-NPsV, AlP-NPsV and AlHV respectively. It could be concluded that Ch-NPsV and AlP-NPsV are safe, potent and induce a higher antibody response than traditional vaccine.

Keywords | Rift Valley fever vaccine, Aluminum phosphate nanoparticles, Chitosan nanoparticles, Cellular immunity, Humoral immunity. 

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

June

Vol. 12, Iss. 6, pp. 994-1205

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