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Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Oil Extract Against Chronic Inflammation in Rat

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) Oil Extract Against Chronic Inflammation in Rat

Rana Mahmood Ahmad*, Orooba Mohammed Maeed  Ibrahim

Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

 
*Correspondence | Rana Mahmood Ahmad, Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; Email: rana.mahmood1993@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extract and essential oil are frequently utilized for their therapeutic qualities. Medicinal plant extracts are non-toxic, safe, and have no harmful side effects. Available in abundance, researchers have turned their attention to using these plants as anti-inflammatory. This study was designed to highlight and compare the effects of Syzygium aromaticum extracts oil and Piroxicam on inflammation circumstances. Extraction of clove bud with petroleum ether revealed a bright yellow extract with a typical clove oil smell and bud. The gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) method revealed the presence of sixteen distinct elements, making up 100% of all known compounds in their whole. The major ingredient, eugenol, made up 49.10% of the total compounds. Oil’s median lethal dose (LD50) was 2225 mg/kg, which suggests that clove oil has a relatively low level of toxicity. Eighteen adults male Wistar albino rats, six months, weighing 200–250g, were used and randomly grouped as follows: Group 1 was kept as a positive control group without treatment. At the same time, Group 2 received clove oil extract orally (10 mg/kg B.W.). Group 3 received Piroxicam (5mg/kg B.W) orally. The anti-inflammatory activity of clove oil extracts and their efficacy in decreasing inflammation in chronic inflammatory models were evaluated using the cotton pellet-induced granuloma method. Decreasing granuloma weight suggests that the proliferative phase has been successfully suppressed. In the current study, treatment with clove oil extract on infected rats significantly decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α value after nine days of treatment, which are central inflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. Clove oil extract also increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which is crucial in preventing tissue damage due to inflammation. These results led us to hypothesize that clove oil extract therapy speeds up the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response during the healing process. On the other hand, the positive control groups showed no improvement in the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in serum. According to the results, we can conclude that the clove oil produced using the petroleum ether have the potential to be used as an excellent anti-inflammatory agent with less side effect. Because medicinal plant extracts are non-toxic, safe, and have no harmful side effects, available in abundance, researchers have turned their attention to using these plants as anti- inflammation.
 
Keywords | Chronic inflammation, Syzygium aromaticum, Anti-inflammatory, TNF-α, IL-10, Rat, Medicinal plants, Clove oil, Cytokines

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

June

Vol. 12, Iss. 6, pp. 994-1205

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