Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Proximate Analysis, Starch Fractions and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Incorporated with Chamomile and Wild Thyme

Proximate Analysis, Starch Fractions and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Incorporated with Chamomile and Wild Thyme

Waseem Abbas, Imtiaz Ahmed* and Imran Khan 

Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Imtiaz Ahmed, Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Email: imtiaz67@aup.edu.pk 

ABSTRACT

The Nutritional quality of wheat bread can be enhanced by incorporating certain nutrient-rich ingredients in its formulation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating chamomile and wild thyme powder in wheat bread to further improve its nutritional profile. For this purpose, three composite test breads (CWB) were prepared by incorporating chamomile and wild thyme at an equal proportion of 1, 2 and 3%. Proximate analyses of wheat flour, chamomile powder, thyme powder, a mixture of chamomile and wild thyme at the ratio of 1:1, control bread (CB) and composite test bread samples were performed using standard methods. In-vitro starch digestibility and total starch were determined by Megazyme starch assay kit. A nine-point hedonic scale assessed bread samples for consumer acceptance. The findings of proximate composition showed a significant increase in ash at 2 and 3 % incorporation. The fiber content also significantly increased at the incorporation ratio of 1, 2 and 3%. In CWB, fat concentration at 2 and 3% incorporation remained almost equal to that of CB. The protein content increased “significantly in a dose-dependent manner with the increasing incorporation of these two herbs” when compared with the CB. When the carbohydrate content of both breads was compared, the functional bread had significantly lower values (p, for all trends < 0.05), respectively, as the ratio of incorporation increased. Total starch (TS) and DS reduced non-significantly at 1 and 2 % and significantly at 3% incorporation as compared with CB. Resistant starch (RS) content of CWB increased significantly (p<0.05) at 1, 2 and 3% incorporation of these herbs with high RS at the highest level of incorporation. Slowly digestible starch (SDS) content non-significantly decreased. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) reduced significantly (p<0.05) at 1% compared with CB, with no significant change at 1 and 2 and 2 and 3 % incorporation. SDI decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing rate of incorporation of chamomile and wild thyme in the CWB. The acceptability score of test bread was ≥6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. It was concluded that this incorporation significantly improved the bread’s nutritional properties and starch digestibility and was acceptable for consumers.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe