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Protection Against Cadmium-Induced Abnormalities and Hepatotoxicity in ovo by Allium sativum

Protection Against Cadmium-Induced Abnormalities and Hepatotoxicity in ovo by Allium sativum

Shagufta Andleeb*1, Shabana Shaukat1, Chaman Ara2

1University of Education, Division of Science & Technology, College Road Township, Lahore; 2Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 

*Corresponding author Dr. Shagufta Andleeb,, 



Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, is a potential carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen through bioaccumulation in tissues. Aim of present study was to analyze various developmental abnormalities by a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride and protective role of garlic (Allium sativum), to minimize the intensity of these toxicities. For this purpose, fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were randomly divided into four groups of forty eggs each. Control group was intact and untreated. Eggs of one group were injected with a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride (1.5 µg/egg) in albumin on 7th day of incubation. In another group, eggs were treated with cadmium chloride and fresh garlic juice (0.2 µg / egg) after a short interval of 10 minutes. Antidote group was injected with fresh garlic juice (0.2 µg / egg). Eggs of each group were incubated at 37 ± 0.5 °Cand at 50-60% relative humidity till hatching. Natural hatching was obtained as 92.5, 32.5, 72.5, and 87.5% in control, dose, dose+antidote, and anitodote groups respectively with delayed hatching in some cases in dose and dose+antidote groups. Chicks and dead embryos were studied for morphological and morphometric analysis. Liver tissues were dissected out from each group for histological analysis. Cadmium chloride induced significant developmental abnormalities such as reduced body weight and crown rump length, exencephaly, ablepharia, crossed beak, gastroschisis, crooked toes, non-alcoholic fatty liver and pyknosis. Fresh garlic juice has successfully attenuated these toxicities and increased the body weight, crown rump length. Results of present study determine that garlic is a potential antidote to ameliorate the cadmium induced teratogenic and hepatotoxic defects in developing Gallus domesticus.

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Punjab University Journal of Zoology


Vol.38, Iss. 2, Pages 137-236


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