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Impact of Diclofenac a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Veterinary Pharmaceutical Drug on Vultures

Impact of Diclofenac a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Veterinary Pharmaceutical Drug on Vultures

Roheela Yasmeen1*, Laiba Asif1 and Samia Djeffal2

1Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Phase VI, Sector C, DHA, Lahore
2GSPA Laboratory of Research (Management of Animal Health and Productions), Institute of Veterinary Sciences,University Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria

*  Corresponding author:,


Worldwide there are 23 species of vultures. The vultures are known as one of nature’s most successful scavengers. However, since the 1990’s vulture numbers in South East Asia have been in decline, especially the oriental white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis), thelong-billed vulture (Gyps indicus), and the slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris). The use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac has been linked to this rapid decline in vulture populations. Diclofenac has been in use since 1974 to treat several problems in cattle such as pain during calving, lameness, mastitis, and swelling. The drug was also used to treat diverse problems such as dysmenorrhea, ocular inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and actinic keratosis etc. Although, it is good for livestock, its impact on the vulture population has been very deleterious. The present review discusses the chemical structure, uses, and the mechanism of the action of diclofenac and its negative impacts on vulture populations along with less harmful alternatives such as meloxicam, and controlling measures to stop decline of vulture species that can be adopted to regain normal population numbers of these vulture species.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 54, Iss. 1, Pages 1-501


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