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A Review on the Adverse Impacts of Cadmium on Ecosystem and its Refinement Strategies

A Review on the Adverse Impacts of Cadmium on Ecosystem and its Refinement Strategies

Khaliq Dad1, Muhammad Nawaz2*, Muhamamd Ibrahim3, Fengliang Zhao4, Rumsha Hassan2, Humaira Nawaz5, Muhammad Usman Saleem6, Kinat Javed2, Ayesha Komal2 and Hajra Naz2

1Government Degree Boys College, Shah Sadder Din, D.G.Khan, Pakistan; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan;3Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 4Institute of Environmental and Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Science, Haikou, Hainan, China; 5College of Earth and Environmental Science, University, of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; 6Department of Biosciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

*Correspondence | Muhammad Nawaz, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; Email: 



Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic metal which naturally exists in environment in small proportion but continuously increasing due to anthropogenic activities. The rapid increase in population is putting pressure on urbanization, agriculture and industrialization which have resulted in gradual increase in Cd level. It is released from industries as an impurity and pollutes soil, water and air in different ways. High solubility in water increases its mobility in the soil ecosystem. The use of sludge and chemical sprays on crops increase the Cd contamination besides some other heavy metals. Through nutrient cycling, it is taken up from the soil to plants and finally becomes the part of human body which warrants serious health concerns. Cadmium causes mild to severe effects on plants, animals and environmental health. Humans are exposed to cadmium through food, water intake, inhalation (cigarette) and dermal contact which then produces heart disease, kidney failure, lung cancer, orthopedic disease, nervous system failure, low immunity level, mental retardation and growth retardation. Different environmental friendly and low cost biological remedies are used nowadays to control Cd toxicity such as phytoremediation phytostabilisation, rhizofilteration, phytoextraction. This review paper has summarized the impact of Cd on soil, plants and humans and strategies to remove or minimize its toxicity by applying some low cost and environmental friendly techniques. 

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research


Vol.37, Iss. 1, Pages 1-87


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