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Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan; 2Department of Animal Production and Technologies, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Niğde, Turkey; 3Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

*Correspondence | Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; Email:


Colors’ beauty creates a fascinating effect on the mind, presence of multi-colored birds, fishes, pure colored animals in our community and the wild always remained attractable to humans. The color pigmentation is essential in animals regarding beauty, tick resistance, photo-protection, camouflage appearance in wild, and identification. Pigmentation is a complex and multi-factorial regulated process to produce the melanin from melanocytes. Melanin amount, size, shape, and distribution control the color pigmentation of fiber, coat, and hairs in animals. Melanin production in an intricate course is under the control of Melanocortin 1 Receptor, alpha Melanocyte stimulating hormone and Agouti signaling gene. In most animals, three different alleles encoding melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor MC1R of extension (E) locus and ED allele determining the blackish coat color, a recessive e allele represented red coat color and the E+ wild-type allele give a variety of colors. Variation in pigment production can be predicted with mutations on genetic asset and production factors. The human desire of keeping variated colored animals advanced the genetic field as in many species (sheep, cattle, horses, camels, dogs, cats, pigs) new variants of coat pigmentation are achieved by generating mutation in MC1R and ASIP allele. A row of scientists is working on genome sequences and mutations for getting a better and healthier pigmentation besides animal welfare. This review article contains a complete elaboration about the worth of pigmentation in animals, natural pigmentation process and new mutation and deviation in animal genome related to their pigmentation for human and animal welfare respectively.

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Journal of Innovative Sciences


Vol.9, Iss.1, Pages 1-191


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