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Antidiarrheal Effects of Prosopis farcta L. Fruit Extract: An Enteropooling and Histopathological Study in Rats

Antidiarrheal Effects of Prosopis farcta L. Fruit Extract: An Enteropooling and Histopathological Study in Rats

Sara H. Zughayyar*, Amer H. Gyad 

College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

*Correspondence | Sara H Zughayyar, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Baghdad, Iraq; Email: amer_gyad@covm.uobaghdad.edu.iq  

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the antidiarrheal activity of the alcoholic fruit extract of Prosopis farcta L. in a rat model. Thirty male Albion Wistar rats randomized into six equal groups of five as follows: negative control (received distilled water), positive control (induced diarrhea with 2 ml castor oil), and experimental groups that received 2 ml castor oil followed by oral administration of different doses of Prosopis farcta L. fruit ethanolic extract (300 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg). A comparative group received castor oil along with loperamide (2.5 mg/kg) orally. The outcomes demonstrated that after three hours, the castor oil-treated animals produced liquid feces. Enteropooling test findings revealed that castor oil generated an accumulation of water and electrolytes in the intestinal loop. Weight and volume of the intestine were reduced after treatment with the fruit extract of Prosopis farcta L. In contrast to loperamide, all groups intestinal contents varied significantly (P≤0.05) in volume and weight. Histopathological examinations of the duodenum corroborated the antidiarrheal efficacy of the extract. In contrast to the positive control group, which showed significant edema and inflammatory cell infiltration, rats treated with the Prosopis farcta L. fruit extract exhibited varying degrees of tissue recovery. Particularly, the group receiving 500 mg/kg showed mild lesions and lower inflammatory cell infiltration, closely resembling the histological profile of the loperamide-treated group. Subsequent phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, phenols, resins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenes, and glycosides, while steroids and proteins were absent. The extract displayed antidiarrheal activity comparable to loperamide, showing a significant reduction in intestinal content volume and weight (P≤0.05). In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Prosopis farcta L. fruits demonstrated promising antidiarrheal activity, potentially due to the phytochemical constituents identified, warranting further research for clinical applications. 

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

April

Vol. 12, Iss. 4, pp. 586-801

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