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Prevalence, Conventional and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Chicken Farms and Slaughterhouses

Prevalence, Conventional and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Isolated from Chicken Farms and Slaughterhouses

Mohammed H. Galhoum1, Hamza M. Eed2, Essam S. Soliman1* 

1Abu Suwayr Veterinary Medical Unit, Directorate of Veterinary Medicine, Ismailia 41513, Egypt; 2Department of Bacteriology, Immunology, and Mycology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ain Shams University, Shubra Al Khaimah, Cairo 11241, Egypt; 3Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonosis, and Animal Behavior, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

*Correspondence | Essam S Soliman, Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonosis, and Animal Behavior, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt; Email: soliman.essam@vet.suez.edu.eg 

ABSTRACT

The consumers’ perspective and expectations on food safety and quality are increased over time as many food stuff and products are exposed to contamination by numerous pathogens concerning Salmonella species. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella contributing contamination in chicken samples that were collected from broiler farms and slaughterhouses using conventional culturing, biochemical, and serological identifications versus molecular detection. A prospective study was designed to last for six months from March 2021 to the end of August 2021. A total number of 126 chicken samples (100 samples from five broiler chicken farms and 26 samples from two slaughterhouses) were collected from the Ismailia governorate. Each sample was composed of liver, intestine, and breast and thigh muscles. The study revealed a total prevalence of 35.7% (45 positives out of 126 samples). Slaughterhouse I and II, chicken farms I, II, III, IV, and V revealed prevalence up to 15.3, 23.0, 40.0, 35.0, 50.0, 45.0, and 30% respectively. Initial isolation revealed 14.2% and delayed isolation procedures revealed a prevalence of up to 21.42%. The bacteriological analysis was carried out using conventional cultural and molecular means (cyclic polymerase chain reaction; cPCR) targeting the invA gene. The isolated Salmonella culture revealed higher resistance incidence up to 100% against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC; 30 μg), ampicillin (AMP; 10 μg), and nalidixic acid (NAL; 30 μg), 90% against enrofloxacin (ENR; 5 μg), and 80% against doxycycline HCL (DO; 30 μg). The conventional culture method revealed up to 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity while the molecular analysis revealed up to 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Salmonella detection. The study concluded that the high prevalence of the Salmonella with high resistance against 60% of the tested antibiotics reflects a serious problem with the hygienic and biosecurity measures taken in the poultry and slaughterhouses, as well the extensive use of the antibiotic contributed to the recorded high resistance among the isolated strains.

Keywords | Antimicrobial, Broiler chickens, Conventional, Molecular, Prevalence, Salmonella 

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

June

Vol. 12, Iss. 6, pp. 994-1205

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