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Beetle Diversity and Distribution at Lower Altitudinal Montane Ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia

Beetle Diversity and Distribution at Lower Altitudinal Montane Ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia

Muneeb M. Musthafa1,* and Fauziah Abdullah1,2,3

1Department of Biosystems Technology, Faculty of Technology, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, University Park, Oluvil, 32360, Sri Lanka
2Center of Biotechnology in Agriculture, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Center of Tropical Biodiversity, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Corresponding author:;


Malaysia, as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, however, very little has been studied at lower elevational mountain reserves and their beetle diversity, which could be decisive in resolving mysteries in tropical biogeography. Objective of this study is to assess and compare the beetle diversity at three selected lower elevational mountains to enlighten our understanding. Measuring the beetle diversity at Fraser’s hill, Gunung Besar Hantu and Gunung Angsi at lower altitudinal (500 m) cline was selected for sampling, where light, malaise and pitfall traps were utilized during 2013-2014 season. Altogether from these three sampling sites 1,575 beetle samples were collected and they went through with some diversity analysis. The Margalef index for Gunung Besar Hantu, Fraser’s Hill and Gunung Angsi showed 9.210, 7.214 and 6.777 respectively while Shannon-Weaner index ranged between 2.546 to 3.083. Evenness is very high at Gunung Angsi (0.930) and Fraser’s hill showed moderate level (0.51). Simpson diversity index is ranging from 0.859 to 0.946 while Shannon Weiner diversity index showed very close values for Gunung Besar Hantu and Gunung Angsi but slightly lower value for Fraser’s Hill. Highest Simpson diversity index and highest evenness index were shown by Gunung Angsi. Lower elevational ecoregions of Malaysian tropical mountains are good laboratories to assess beetle diversity which can be utilized for climate change studies and ecological disturbances. Long term monitoring program between different mountains on beetle diversity and distribution would enhance the understanding of their habitat pattern in relation to seasonal pattern and anthropogenic disturbances.


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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001


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