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Sajjad Ali1, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1, Daulat Khan1, Mohammed Sharif2, Hamad Khan1, Asmat Ullah3,
Abdul Malik1 

1 Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar-Pakistan
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia Central University, New Delhi, India
3 US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Water, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology,
Jamshoro, Sindh-Pakistan 


over Pakistan for mid-century (2040–2069) and end century (2070–2099) time periods. An open source web tool
namely “climate wizard” was used to obtain temperature and precipitation departures projected by three different
GCMs under A1B, B1 and A2 emission scenarios. To ensure the maximum possible spatial coverage, a total of 16
climatic stations in Pakistan were selected. Results indicated a temperature departure in the range of 1.3-2.7°C for
the mid century period, and a temperature departure in the range of 2.3-5.3°C for the end century period. Among
different provinces of Pakistan, Gilgit Baltistan, Northern and Southern Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and central
Balochistan are likely to be subjected to greatest temperature rise in the coming decades. The projections of precipitation changes over Pakistan by different models show greater variability compared to temperature changes. An
increase in precipitation in the range of (1-11%) was projected over Pakistan for the mid century. However, central
Balochistan and southern Punjab showed negative precipitation departures ranging from -1 to-11%, thus increasing
the likelihood of droughts in these regions. For the end century, positive precipitation departures were projected
throughout the country, except Balochistan, Gilgit Baltistan and Southern Punjab, which showed negative departures
of (-1 to -19%). With the projected rise in mean annual temperature through Pakistan, several sectors such
as agriculture, energy, water supply and health will face serious challenges in the second half of the 21st century.
Therefore, preventive and remedial measures are required to minimize the impacts of projected warming by formulating
long-term management and control policies for all sectors. 


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Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences


Vol. 39, Iss. 1, pp. 01-126


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