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Evaluation of Well Water Quality of District Bajaur, Pakistan

Evaluation of Well Water Quality of District Bajaur, Pakistan

Hazrat Usman1, Shakeel Ahmad2*, Salah Uddin3, Humaira Wasila3 and Yasser Durrani4

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; 3Department of Human Nutrition, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 4Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Shakeel Ahmad, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China, Email: shakeelnutrition@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This research study focuses on the assessment of physicochemical parameters in the open well water of selected Tehsils (Khar, Mamund, and Salarzai) in District Bajaur, Pakistan. A total of 21 samples of well water were collected from the study area, with seven samples obtained from each Tehsil. The research analysis focused on various parameters, including pH, turbidity, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, and fluorides. The recorded average value ranges for each parameter provided insights into the characteristics of the well water samples. For example, pH values ranged from 6.87 to 7.53, indicating acidity or alkalinity levels. Turbidity, a measure of water clarity, varied from 0.5100 NTU to 45.633 NTU. Electric conductivity fell within the range of 261.00 µS/cm to 614.67 µS/cm, reflecting the water’s ability to conduct electricity. Total hardness exhibited values ranging from 180.67 mg/L to 636.67 mg/L, indicating mineral content. These comprehensive data sets contribute to a deeper understanding of the physicochemical properties of the well water in the selected Tehsils, aiding in the evaluation of water quality and potential health risks. The recorded values were compared to guidelines established by prominent regulatory bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA, 2018), and the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA, 2008). By aligning the recorded values with these standards, the researchers aimed to assess compliance with recommended thresholds and evaluate potential health implications. Unfortunately, based on the guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), the majority of the well water samples collected, except for those from Kharkai, Malangy, Laradagai, Raghagan, and Zubandar, were found to be unsuitable for human consumption. The researchers hope that this study will increase public awareness in the studied areas and encourage people to avoid using contaminated open well water for drinking and other domestic purposes to reduce the associated health risks.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

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