Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A), also called mammary gland factor (MGF), is a key mediator of signal transduction within mammary gland and uterine epithelial cells. It is a member of placental lactogen (PL) and interferon-tau (IFN-τ) signal pathway. It is also the main mediator of growth hormone. When cells encounter growth hormones and cytokines, STAT5A is activated to regulate gene transcription. STA5A has an important role in fertilization, embryonic survival and milk production traits in farm animals. The genomic characterization of STAT5A gene has not been assessed before in Nili Ravi Buffalo. In present research work, the sequence of the bovine STAT5A gene was analyzed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and its effect on evolutionary divergence. Nine polymorphisms, six in intronic and three in exonic regions, were identified in STAT5A gene. One exonic polymorphism G→A, in exon 5, was significant that causes a non-synonymous amino acid change from Serine (S) to Asparagine (N). Further, 64 genetic variants were also identified in STAT5A gene and these variants were due to cattle and buffalo differences. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary divergence were also estimated. The sequence was submitted to GenBank (NCBI) with accession number MN712202. Our results represent a preliminary step towards the identification of polymorphisms in STAT5A gene of Nili Ravi Buffalo. Further studies are required for the association of genetic polymorphisms of STAT5A gene with fertility related traits.
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