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Micronucleus Assay as a Biomarker to Diagnose Lead, Chromium and Cadmium Induced Genotoxicity in Erythrocytes of Carnivorous Fish, Wallago attu

Micronucleus Assay as a Biomarker to Diagnose Lead, Chromium and Cadmium Induced Genotoxicity in Erythrocytes of Carnivorous Fish, Wallago attu

Sajid Abdullah1*, Huma Naz2*, Zunera Abbas1, Uzma Nazir1, Mehrunisa Basharat1, Tanveer Ahmed3, Adnan Ahmad Qazi2

1Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
3Department of Life Sciences, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.
 
Corresponding author’s: Sajid Abdullah and Huma Naz
humanaz@cuvas.edu.pk, uaf_sajidabdullah@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals discharged from agriculture and industries into water bodies are a significant cause of water contamination. This increase in heavy metals cause genetic damage in exposed species like fish. Therefore, this study focused on the genotoxic effects of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) on nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Wallago attu were assessed by micronucleus assay. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1/3rd, 1/4th, 1/5thand 1/7th of LC50) of Pb, Cr and Cd, separately, for three weeks. Blood sample of fish was collected to see the micronuclei (MN) and deshape nuclei (DN) in peripheral erythrocytes of fish after one-week interval. Fish W. attu showed significant induction of MN and DN in blood due to metals (Pb, Cr and Cd) exposure. It was noted that Pb and Cd exposure caused significant formation of MN and DN in RBCs of fish throughout the experimental period. However, Cr treated fish showed higher formation of MN and DN during initial two weeks of exposure after that both were decreased. The toxic potential of different concentration of Pb, Cr and Cd induced genotoxicity followed order: 1/3rd>1/4th>1/5th>1/7th of LC50. The metal specific response of fish followed the trend: Pb>Cr>Cd. Statistical analysis revealed that different concentrations and duration of Pb, Cr and Cd have significant effect on the frequency of micro-nucleated erythrocytes. The inferences of this study will be helpful in monitoring aquatic ecosystems using fish biomarkers. 
 
Novelty Statement | The study is novel for detecting the genetic damage at cellular level of fish (Wallago attu) caused by heavy metals and industrial toxicants in water.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 53, Iss. 6, Pages 2001-2521

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