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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection Among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Specialist Hospital, Lokoja

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Human immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection Among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Specialist Hospital, Lokoja

Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo1, Monday Eneojo Akor1, Cornelius Arome Omatola1*, Zainab Penninah Ochada1, Ugbane Eleojo Okolo2, Benjamin Mudi Idache3, Andrew Isiramen4, Julius Akor Omatola5 and Moses Adaji David6

1Department of Microbiology, P.M.B.1008, Prince Abubakar Audu University, Anyigba, Nigeria; 2Federal Medical Center, Lokoja, Nigeria; 3Department of Health and Physical Kinetics, Prince Abubakar Audu University, Anyigba, Nigeria; 4Department of Microbiology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma; 5Department of Statistics, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja; 6Department of Biotechnology Science and Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, United States of America.

 
*Correspondence | Omatola Cornelius Arome, Department of Microbiology, P.M.B.1008, Prince Abubakar Audu University, Anyigba, Nigeria; Email: omatolac@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Worldwide tuberculosis (TB) prevalence increased as a result of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. Nevertheless, the widespread use of efficient antiretrovirals has lately prompted the tendency to reverse. This study was carried out to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis using GeneXpert in HIV seropositive patients attending Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja. The study was done using 325 confirmed HIV patients (86 males and 239 females). A structured questionnaire was administered and 325 patients who consented were enrolled in the study. Sputum specimen was collected from each patient, processed, and examined using Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay Version 4. The prevalence of HIV/TB was found to be 6 (1.85%). Infection was more prevalent in the age group 26-35 years (3.92%) and among the females (83%) than their counterpart males (17%). Co-infection was found only among the married (2.43%). A higher prevalence (1.89%) was found in patients from monogamous families (2.41%) and in patients residing in rural areas compared to urban dwellers (1.65%). Occupation-specific prevalence showed that farmers had the highest prevalence (2.56%) followed by those who identified as traders (2.16%) and civil servants (1.79%). Yet among patients who identified as students, no incident of TB was observed. Patients with secondary education had the highest prevalence (3.08%) followed by patients with tertiary education (1.58%). Patients with no formal education and primary education had no co-infection. Between the sociodemographic factors that were assessed and the HIV patients who had TB infection, there was no statistically significant correlation (P>0.05). The rate of HIV/TB co-infection, though low in this study, could worsen the clinical outcomes in affected patients. Therefore, there should be increased public health awareness of TB and HIV transmission and prevention in the study area. 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

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