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Assessment of Phytochemical Profiling and Therapeutic Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Vitex negundo (L.)

Assessment of Phytochemical Profiling and Therapeutic Potential of the Ethanolic Extract of Vitex negundo (L.)

Shah Zeb Khan1, Ali Hazrat1*, Farman Ali Khan2, Muhammad Yahya1, Gul Rahim1, Muhammad Mukhtiar3, Muhammad Ajmal Khan4 and Hayat Ullah1

1Department of Botany, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 2Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Binazir Bhutoo University, Sheringal Dir Lower, Pakistan; 3Department of Pharmacy, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan; 4Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Ali Hazrat, Department of Botany, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Email: aliuom@gmail.com, ali.hazrat@uom.edu.pk 

ABSTRACT

Vitex negundo (L.) is a medicinal small tree of the Verbenaceae family that grows in Pakistan and India. The current study aims to identify the existence of several natural compounds (flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and saponins) in the bark of V. negundo (L.) roots and stem, as well as their potential antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The crude was obtained in 95 % methanolic which was further fractionated into n-hexane (HR, HS), Chloroform (CR, CS), ethyl acetate (EtR, EtS) and butanol (BR, BS) soluble fractions by solvent-solvent extraction. In phytochemical tests of roots fractions; HR showed the presence of terpenoids, while saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids were detected in CR. EtR was enriched in terpenoids and phenols and the butanol fraction (BR) contained terpenoids and flavonoids. Similarly in stem fractions; HS contained alkaloids and phenols while terpenoids and Phenols were present CS. EtS showed the presence of flavonoids, while butanol fraction (BS) contained terpenoids and flavonoids. In Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) examination showed, that there were several individual spots identified the existence of detected phytochemicals. Almost all the fractions showed very strong DPPH free radical inhibitory effects. Strong antioxidant activity was found for BR (IC50= 62.5 µg/mL) and BS (IC50= 80 µg/mL) probably due to the presence of flavonoids in butanol fractions, evident from the Fourier Transform (FT-IR) spectral analysis which gave distinct absorption of flavonoids functionalities. In antimicrobial studies, CR exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. flexneri and S. aureus with inhibition zone of 25±0.75, 21±0.35 and 18±0.21 mm respectively. The same fraction showed very potent antifungal effect against A. niger and A. flavus with inhibition zones of 19±0.45 and 18±0.39 mm respectively. In case of stem extracts, CS exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aurous and S. flexneri with inhibition zone of 24±0.23, 22±0.67 and 20±0.32 mm respectively while the same fraction showed maximum inhibition of linear growth (22±0.76 and 19±0.66 mm) of Candida albicans and A. niger, respectively. We conclude that V. negundo (L.) has potential antimicrobial and antifungal capacities which make it a potential candidate for the development of antibiotic drugs through pharmacological formulation.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500

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