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Phylogenetic Relationship among Indigenous Cattle Breeds of Pakistan Based on RAPD Markers

Phylogenetic Relationship among Indigenous Cattle Breeds of Pakistan Based on RAPD Markers

Muhammad Saif-ur Rehman1, Faiz-ul Hassan1* and Muhammad Sajjad Khan2

1Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
2Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
* Corresponding author:


Genetic diversity and relationship among 10 indigenous cattle breeds (Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Cholistani, Dajal, Dhanni, Rojhan, Lohani, Hissar, Hariana and Tharparkar) were analysed using RAPD markers. A total of 80 RAPD primers were used for PCR amplification of DNA from the cattle breeds. The PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Scoring of bands were performed to generate dendrogram using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA). Six hundred and four amplified bands were observed from successful amplifications of 73 primers (average 8.2 bands per prime). Only seven primers amplified no product or unidentifiable (smeared) bands. A total of 68 polymorphic bands were observed, showing 11.25 % polymorphism on average across cattle breeds. Results revealed a low genetic variation among the cattle breeds. A RAPD primer OPF-07 was able to discriminate more than one cattle breed. Phylogenetic analysis showed the relatively high similarity indices among 10 cattle breeds (ranging from 83.85% to 89.62%). The highest similarity was observed between Dhanni and Lohani (89.62%), followed by Sahiwal and Red Sindhi with 89.44% similarity. However, the lowest similarity was observed between Cholistani and Tharparkar (83.85%). The cluster analysis of UPGMA showed two major clusters: Cluster A having Hissar and Hariana (similarity coefficient 0.87) grouping with Tharparkar; and cluster B having Dajal and Rojhan (0.88) grouped together, Dhanni clustered with Lohani while Cholistani grouped with Dajal and Rojhan. The Sahiwal breed clustered with Red Sindhi having a similarity coefficient of 0.89. The findings revealed close genetic relationships among the cattle breeds which need to be refined by an increased sample size of each breed from their respective home tracts. Moreover, further studies are warranted by using latest genomics tools to get insights into the evolution and domestication of indigenous cattle breeds.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 4, pp. 1501-2000


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