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Molecular and Epidemiological Overview on Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza H9N2 in Egypt between 2015 and 2016

Molecular and Epidemiological Overview on Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza H9N2 in Egypt between 2015 and 2016

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Giza 12618, Egypt. 


Since the first isolation of the H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) in 2011, the virus has been distributed rapidly and widely in different Egyptian poultry sectors causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Reference laboratory of veterinary quality control on poultry production (RLQP) from different poultry sectors and bird species which are distributing all over the Egyptian governorates for examination of LPAI (H9N2) virus by real time RT-PCR. The results confirmed positive samples from 1026 for H9N2 with prevalence rate 4.4%. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive samples were recorded from 26 governorates. Totally, the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), then 167 live bird markets (LBM) (16.5%) and 76 households (7%), respectively. Also, the highest number of positive samples were detected in chicken with highest prevalence (90%) for H9N2 infection among all the examined species, followed by Turkey (4%), duck (2.6%) and quail (2.4%), respectively. Genetically, the genetic sequence for the Hemagglutinin (HA) of 38 viruses circulating Egyptian viruses during 2015 and 2016 were belonging to the Middle East G1- like viruses and scattered phylogenetically in different subgroups with the presence of variant viruses in the quail during 2015.  

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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