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Mycotoxins in Silage: Occurrence, Effects, and Management Strategies for Sustainable Livestock Production a Review

Mycotoxins in Silage: Occurrence, Effects, and Management Strategies for Sustainable Livestock Production a Review

Syed Nouman Shah1, Anees Ur Rahman1, Abdul Kabir1,2*, Midrar Ullah3, Shahab Ahmad Nawaz1, Muhammad Said1, Abdul Hafeez Bukero1, Maaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Sadiq1

1Faculty of Animal Husbandary and Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan; 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan; 3Livestock and Dairy Development Department Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Abdul Kabir, Faculty of Animal Husbandary and Veterinary Science, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan; Email: Kabirvet32@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi that contaminate silage, a common livestock feed. Mycotoxin contamination poses significant risks to animal health and performance, affecting various physiological systems and functions. This paper aims to review the current literature on mycotoxin occurrence, effects, and management in silage and identify effective strategies to ensure animal health, productivity, and minimize economic losses. We synthesized evidence from studies on harvest and ensiling techniques, silage additives and preservatives, postharvest management practices, feed management practices, and mycotoxin binders. We found that proper harvest and ensiling techniques; silage additives and preservatives that prevent fungal growth; regular monitoring of storage conditions and feed samples; well-mixed feed formulations with mycotoxin binders; diversified feed ingredients and optimized feed processing techniques can reduce mycotoxin levels in silage and their negative impacts on livestock. We conclude that a comprehensive understanding of mycotoxins in silage and the implementation of effective management strategies are essential for sustainable livestock production. Future research should focus on developing alternative and sustainable feed sources, precision livestock farming techniques, genetic selection for resilience and sustainability, circular economy approaches, and climate change adaptation strategies.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 1, pp. 01-501

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