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Efficacy of Disinfectants against Egyptian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

Efficacy of Disinfectants against Egyptian H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3


1Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt; 2Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Egypt; 3Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt; 4Department of Poultry disease and management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt


Poultry industry in Egypt is facing various management problems along with infectious diseases including avian influenza (AI). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways. In the present study, representative disinfectants from chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents have been evaluated for their virucidal ability against two distinct Egyptian subclades of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); (A/chicken/Egypt/VRLCU67/2011) variant subclade and (A/chicken/Egypt/13VIR3729-4/2013) classic subclade 2.2.1/C that were sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder), Virkon®S and Peraclean®. The purpose from using the Egyptian H5N1 viruses in the evaluation was to achieve maximum simulation of Egyptian field reality as the two viruses represent the two main subclades currently co-circulating in Egypt. The disinfectants were tested individually for effectiveness against HPAI H5N1 for 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes contact time. Numerical method and neutralization test were used to assess the ability of each disinfectant to inactivate the virus. Our results revealed that all the used disinfectants were effective with increasing the contact time more than 15 minutes except with Virkon®S which was effective even at a short contact time, 5 minutes. In conclusion, this study reported that chlorine and non-chlorine oxidizing agents are effective against H5N1 HPAI at the farm level that would be helpful in implementing bio-security measures at farms/hatcheries levels in the wake of avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak.


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Hosts and Viruses


Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146


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