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Morphology of Lingual Papillae of Bear: Light Microscopic and SEM Study

Morphology of Lingual Papillae of Bear: Light Microscopic and SEM Study

Essam H. Ibrahim1,2,3, Attalla F. El-kott1,4, Ali Alshehri1, Mona Kilany2,5,  Reza Yavari6, Salahud Din7* and Diaa Massoud8,9

1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.
2Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.
3Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt.
4Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.
5Microbiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Cairo, Egypt. 
6Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
7Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
8Biology Department, College of Science, Jouf University, P.O. Box 2014, Sakaka, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia
9Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

*      Corresponding author:



The morphology and histology of the tonguein two adult Asian bears were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Four types of papillae; filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate were observed on the dorsaum lingua. Numerous filiform papillae were visible on the lingual apex and body, while, fungiform papillae were scattered among them. The discoid-shaped fungiform papillae were more densely on the lingual apex. The filiform papillae were extended to the lateral margin of the lingual body. They were transformed into the conical papillae on the caudal part of the lingual body and root. Totally, 14-16 of spheroid and oval vallate papillae at different sizes were present on the root of the tongue. The foliate papillae were absent. Histological sections showed that the conical papillae represented a flat pyramidal shape with several slender accessory processes. The tongue was covered by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. A dense connective tissue composed the lamina propria and thick masses of striated muscles constituted the bulk of the tongue. The lamina propria didn’t penetrate completely into the filiform papillae of the lateral margin. Numerous forms of lingual salivary glands with seromucous secrations were intermingled with the lingual muscles in the lingual root.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 6, Pages 2001-2521


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