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Histopathological Examination of the Possibility of a Purrfect Neuro Inflammatory Storm Leading to Choroid Blindness and Death Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Red Kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)

Histopathological Examination of the Possibility of a Purrfect Neuro Inflammatory Storm Leading to Choroid Blindness and Death Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Red Kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)

Peyman Mohammadzadeh1*, Aida Rasuli2, Bahman Noroozi Gorgani2, Sajjad Mohammadi3

1Department of Pathobiology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran; 2Graduated from the Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran; 3Second Year Student of DVM, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

 
*Correspondence | Peyman Mohammadzadeh, Department of Pathobiology, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran; Email: peymanpathologist@iausdj.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

The cause of mortality in macropods like kangaroos may not always be known, and in many cases, it is difficult to determine. According to necropsy results, a male red kangaroo with a history of chronic neuro-ocular toxoplasmosis had an extensive mixed fracture of the posterior and base of the skull. Direct deep and countercoup brain bruises, independent fractures of the top and roof of both orbits, subdural hemorrhage with edema and shifting of the mid-line to the left, frontal lobe with severe hemorrhagic discharge in the ventricles, diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and exclusion of berry aneurysm in vertebral arteries, traumatic tear due to intracranial and intraspinal courses, temporal were seen. Due to unilateral brain herniation, the tonsillar hernia was associated with hemorrhage and linear necrosis rather than only bulging. The corpus callosum and fornix had small areas of hemorrhage that indicated a sign of diffuse traumatic axonal injury. In histopathology, activated microglia and reactive astrogliosis were seen. The cause of death was TBI followed by eye blindness caused by toxoplasmosis, during which was the formation of a hematoma larger than 60 mL, a primary Glasgow coma scale less than 8, and basal nucleus ganglia dysfunction. A 40-ml intracerebral hemorrhage occurred followed by severe blood aspiration and asphyxia.
 
Keywords | Choroid blindness, Neuroinflammation, Neuro-ocular toxoplasmosis, Red Kangaroo, Traumatic Brain Injury, Necropsy, Histopathology

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

April

Vol. 12, Iss. 4, pp. 586-801

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