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Biochemical Responses of Bufo regularis (Reuss, 1833) Tadpole Exposed to Butaforce® and Termex® Pesticides

Biochemical Responses of Bufo regularis (Reuss, 1833) Tadpole Exposed to Butaforce® and Termex® Pesticides

Constance Obiageli Ejilibe1, Helen O. Nwamba2, Ifeanyi Chinedu Atama3,*, Chiamaka Lynda Ani2, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie3, Josephine C. Madu3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani3

1Department of Biology, Federal College of Education, Eha Amufu, Nigeria
2Department of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria 
3Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

*      Corresponding author:;



The study investigated the biochemical responses of Bufo regularis tadpoles exposed to two widely used agricultural pesticides, Butaforce® and Termex®. The Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) concentrations in homogenized muscle samples was determined by standard procedures. ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly in response to concentrations of Butaforce® (7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µgL-1) and Termex® (15.00, 20.00 and 25.00 µgL-1) used. The TP decreased in response to the same concentrations of pesticides. The response of these biochemical parameters were dependent on concentration of the pesticides; it increased as concentration of pesticides was increased. This study showed that Butaforce® and Termex® are toxic to B. regularis tadpoles, and both induced concentration dependent biochemical changes indicative of muscle damage and depletion of protein synthesis. Both pesticides should be applied with extreme caution to avoid toxicity to non-target organisms.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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