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Occurrence and Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Food and Feed Resources

Occurrence and Toxicity of Mycotoxins from Food and Feed Resources

Shomaila Sikandar1*, Imran Afzal1 and Sadaf Sarfraz2

1Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan.

*Correspondence | Shomaila Sikandar, Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan; Email:


Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites produced by different filamentous fungi. The significance of these low molecular weight compounds lies in the fact that they are the contributors of severe health issues in livestock and humans. Every year mycotoxins infect different crops and animal feedstock by accumulating in the food and feed crops in the field and during transportation, which leads to the huge economic losses. Presently about 300 types of mycotoxins have been identified, while, aflatoxins, fuminisons, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and zearalenone are the major mycotoxins infecting food and feed crops. Consumption of food contaminated with these mycotoxins can cause severe toxicity in human and animals. Members of these fungal genera Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp., are major mycotoxins producers in food and feed crops. Mycotoxins thrive in high-temperature, humid environments, and they can enter the food chain either directly or indirectly by contaminating food and feed crops. They can cause infection before and after agricultural crop harvesting. Economically mycotoxins infection leads to loss of feedstock, reduced livestock production, human and animal life threatening diseases and major issues leading to global food security. All these factors demand for extensive research for early mycotoxins detection methods and making regularity bodies to contain the spread of mycotoxins. This review summarizes the occurrence and toxicity of five major types of mycotoxins associated with food and feed and their importance in human nutrition and animal health.

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol.40, Iss. 1, Pages 01-262


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