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Climate Change and Agriculture: An Overview of Farmers Perception and Adaptations in Balambat Tehsil, District Dir Lower, Pakistan

Climate Change and Agriculture: An Overview of Farmers Perception and Adaptations in Balambat Tehsil, District Dir Lower, Pakistan

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

Department of Geography, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 


The present research was aimed to determine the ability of farmers to detect climate change and how they have adapted to whatever climate change they believe has occurred. Farmers have indigenous knowledge of the climate of the area to predict and forecast the changing weather and climate. Knowing such traditional knowledge provides an opportunity to understand how the farmers are adapting to new type of weather. The study was carried out in Balambat Tehsil District Dir Lower. They study is primarily based on questionnaire survey and focus group discussion. A total of fifteen villages out of total 173 were selected for study, 75 farmers were interviewed, 05 from each of the 15 selected villages. A total of 15 focus group discussions were organised, one is each selected village. The key parameters addressed during survey were cropping pattern, sowing, harvesting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and harvesting dates of crops are 10-20 days earlier than it used to be 20 year ago (1992-2012). Similar change was reported in the time of fruit tree blossoming because of the onset of early summer and shortening of winter season. Majority of farmers believe that warmer climate caused a variety of new crop diseases. Survey reveals that there is not only decrease in the amount of rainfall but the timing of rainfall is also changed. The study demonstrated mixed type of results about the awareness level of the respondents in relation to climate change. The only adaptation strategy opted by farmers in the study area is change in crop calendar. 


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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 37, Iss. 3, Pages 714-1097


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