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Molecular Identification of Coxiella burnetii, and Incidence and Risk Factors of Coxiellosis in Bovines of Punjab, Pakistan

Molecular Identification of Coxiella burnetii, and Incidence and Risk Factors of Coxiellosis in Bovines of Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Usman1,*, Abdul Jabbar1, Saba Usman3, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Husnain1, Nadeem Raza1 and Anwar-ul-Haq4

1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
2Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
3Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
4Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Lahore, Punjab
 
* Corresponding author: drhmusman@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever in bovines. Its role has never been elucidated in bovines from Pakistan. The current study was designed to determine the incidence of coxiellosis in bovines, evaluate the association of various risk factors in the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, determine phylogeny and genetic variability of various isolates identified during the study, and report hematology of the affected bovines. The incidence of coxiellosis was estimated as 32.12% and 12.5% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. The association of selected clinical biomarkers was also ascertained and all of these were found significantly (p<0.05) associated with the incidence of coxiellosis. The results of animal-related risk factors indicated that with increasing age and parity number, poor BCS, or a history of disease, the incidence of coxiellosis became significantly (p<0.05) higher. Various farm-related risk factors were also found significantly (p<0.05) associated with Coxiellosis. Moreover, phylogeny of isolated bacteria showed genetic variability (47%-99%). Lastly, the hematology profile of Coxiella burnetii positive buffaloes showed significant (p<0.05) lymphocytopenia (45.95 ± 13.4), neutrophilia (32.80 ± 11.75), leukocytosis (11.25 ± 3.62), eosinopenia (4.95 ± 2.14), thrombocytopenia (232.50 ± 211.74), and decreased hemoglobin (7.005 ± 0.90) and PCV levels (21.29 ± 2.28). Whereas in affected cows only low hemoglobin level (7.25 ± 1.18), decreased PCV (22.29 ± 3.34), eosinopenia (9.6 ± 5.49), and thrombocytopenia (365.25 ± 227.32) were statistically significant (p<0.05). As far as we know, this study provides the first molecular evidence of coxiellosis in bovines from Pakistan.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001

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