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Distribution, Biology and Management Strategies about a Less Studied Insect Pest (Trilocha varians) of Ficus: A Review

Distribution, Biology and Management Strategies about a Less Studied Insect Pest (Trilocha varians) of Ficus: A Review

Muhammad Ramzan1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah2, Muhammad Umair Sial2, Naeem Iqbal2 and Shafqat Saeed2

1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China; 2Institute of Plant Protection, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan Punjab Pakistan.

 
*Correspondence | Muhammad Ramzan, State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China; Email: ramzan.mnsua@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT

Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae) are a large group of plants grown for landscape and medicinal purposes in various regions and also known for absorbing various toxic pollutants from the environment. Several insect pests like thrips, whiteflies, mealy bugs and caterpillars attack on these plants. Among them, leaf eating caterpillar, Trilocha varians (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is serious insect pest for these precious plant species in various countries. The larvae of the pest can cause 80-100% defoliation. The various confirmed host of T. varians include Ficus benjamina, F. religiosa, F. benghalensis, F. caraica, F. infectoria, F. elastica, F. nitida, Artocarpus communis, A. heterpphyllus and A. kamansi. Fairly limited studies are documented for its chemical and biological management. For chemical control, deltamethrin was proved more toxic while among biological control agents Goryphus sp., Enicospilus sp., Telenomus sp, Listrognathus spinifrons, Trichogramma pretiosum, T. euproctidis and T. dendrolimi have been documented as potential egg and pupal parasitoids of T. varians in many countries of the world. The present paper is an attempt to bring and summarize the basic information on majoraspects like distribution, biological parameters and control strategies of bombycid moth T. varians.

 

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 34, Iss. 3, Pages 394-671

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