Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Causes of Morbidity and Mortality in Wild Animals and Birds at Captive Breeding Facilities of Punjab, Pakistan

Causes of Morbidity and Mortality in Wild Animals and Birds at Captive Breeding Facilities of Punjab, Pakistan

Zahra Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali* and Rida Ahmad

Environmental Health and Wildlife Laboratory, Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

* Corresponding author:,


Captive breeding of wild animals can enhance conservation of species, while the prevalence of diseases and other pathological conditions is a very common issue in captive animals and birds. The present study investigated the prevalence of different diseases and health conditions among animal and bird species at 10 captive breeding facilities of Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, three-year data (2017-2019), regarding diseases and pathological conditions was collected from treatment register, stud books and post-mortem reports. Most prevalent health issues in animals were infectious diseases 26%, followed by generalized conditions 23%, gastrointestinal issues 17%, and cardiovascular issues 7%. In animals, out of total 102 different diseases and pathological conditions, the maximum variation was noted in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis orientalis), hog deer (Axis porcinus) and spotted deer (Axis axis). In birds, 37% infectious diseases, 24% generalized conditions, 15% gastrointestinal and 9% respiratory issues were recorded. Among infectious diseases, salmonellosis, infectious coryza and colibacillosis were most abundant with 34, 34 and 29 cases respectively. Out of 99 different diseases and pathological conditions in birds, maximum variety was recorded in ring-necked pheasant (Phasinaus colchicus), black-shouldered peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and green pheasant (Phasianus versicolor). Comparison of different study sites revealed that Lahore Zoo had the highest disease prevalence in animals with significance value 0.002 (p<0.05). To reduce prevalence of diseases and health issues, various strategies and guidelines given by international authorities such as Association of Zoos and Aquariums and European Association of Zoos and Aquaria should be adopted and implemented.


To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe