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Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection among HIV/HBV and HBV-mono Infected Patients in Jos, Nigeria

Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection among HIV/HBV and HBV-mono Infected Patients in Jos, Nigeria

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Jennifer Ifeoma Okpara1, James Mogoret Dabol1, Joshua Adetunji1, David Adeniyi2, David O. Amanyi3, Otobo I. Ujah4, Veronica David1, Patience Omaiye5 and Onyemocho Audu6

1Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria; 2APIN Public Health Initiatives, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Department of Family Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria, 6Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.


*Correspondence | Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Department of Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria; Email:


Globally, over 20 million of hepatitis D virus (HDV) are coinfected with Hepatitis B virus, which has an estimate of 350 million infected individuals. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV infection in HBV/HIV and HBV-mono infected patients in Jos, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety (45 HBV/HBV and 45 HBV-mono) infected patients with chronic hepatitis B attending the hepatitis clinics of the two tertiary hospitals (Plateau State Teaching Hospital and HIV treatment center, at Jos University Teaching Hospital), Jos Metropolis from September to December 2018. The anti-HDV antibodies (IgM) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay HDV IgM ELISA Kit (MyBiosource, Inc, USA). The result was interpreted according to manufacturer’s instructions. Ninety HBsAg positive patient were included (45 HBV/HIV, and 45 HBV-mono infected patients), 36 (40.0%) males, and 54 (60.0%) were females, with the overall mean age of 38.7 ±13years. However, the mean age was higher (36±13.1 years) in the HBV/HIV as compared to HBV-mono (40.6 ±12.7 years) infected patients. The mean age of patients was 36,92 ± 15,35 years. One hundred and three (63.6%) of them were males and 59 (36,4%) were females. Ten (11.1%) of patients were positive for anti-HD antibodies. the infection among the HBV/HBV was 13.3% and HBV-mono 8.9%. In the statistical analysis, the HBV-mono infected; age (p=.037), marital status (p=.001), cigarette smoking (p=.022) and condom use (p=.04) were significantly related to HDV infection. The study demonstrated high prevalence of HDV infection, which is imperative for policy makers and health care providers to strengthen the prevention measures for HDV, including the use of HBV prevention vaccine. Also, it is important to screen chronic HBV patients for HDV for early detection to avert subsequent development of end stage liver disease. Furthermore, larger studies are needed to gain better understanding of the HDV infection among chronic hepatitis B patients in endemic regions and other high-risk populations.

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Hosts and Viruses


Vol.10, Pages 1-71


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