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Molecular, Serological and Pathological Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Small Ruminants in Peshawar, Pakistan

Molecular, Serological and Pathological Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Small Ruminants in Peshawar, Pakistan

Muhammad Izhar ul Haque1, Farhan Anwar Khan1*, Umar Sadique1, Hamayun Khan1, Zia ur Rehman1, Salman Khan1, Hayatullah Khan1,2, Faisal Ahmad1,3, Mumtazur Rahman1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Muhammad Saeed1, Mehboob Ali1 and Saqib Nawaz1

1Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Directorate of Livestock and Dairy Development (Extension), Peshawar, 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 
3Directorate of Livestock and Dairy Development (Research), Peshawar, 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
 
* Corresponding author: farhan82@aup.edu.pk

ABSTRACT

Paratuberculosis (pTB) also known as Johne’s disease (JD), is a chronic infectious disease of animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is also a serious public health concern as MAP is responsible for Crohn’s disease in human beings. This infectious disease is so far unexplored in animals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was proposed to investigate the presence of MAP by indirect ELISA (iELISA), associated histopathological lesions and PCR in sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra aegagru hircus) in district Peshawar. Serum and fecal samples were collected at random both from commercial farms and abattoirs. Additionally, tissue samples (intestine and mesenteric lymph node (MLN)) were collected at random from sheep and goats at abattoirs of district Peshawar. Analyses of serum samples by iELISA revealed the presence of antibodies against MAP in 9% sheep and 5% goats. Ziehl Nielsen (ZN) staining exhibited acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 31% sheep and 23% goat’s fecal impression smears. Gross pathology in intestinal samples (thickness, corrugation) was observed in 30% sheep and 22% goats, while MLN exhibited gross lesions (hemorrhages, edematous swelling) in 35% sheep and 27% goats. Histopathological lesions were observed in intestine and MLN in 26% and 19% sheep, and 17% and 14% goats, respectively. Additionally, PCR revealed the presence of MAP in tissue samples of 5% sheep and 3% goat. This study concluded that MAP is present in the small ruminants of district Peshawar. The infection was confirmed by PCR and iELISA. The presence of MAP could be a serious threat to livestock and public health in the region.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 54, Iss. 6, Pages 2501-3000

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