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Combined Physico-chemical and Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture Plus Clonidine in Goats

Zahir Shah1*, Saima Munawar1, Ihsan Ullah2, Taif Shah3, Haq Aman Ullah1, Saqib Nawaz1, Farhan Anwar Khan1 and Manoj Kumar Shah4

1College of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-25130, Pakistan; 2Department of Livestock Management, Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-25130, Pakistan; 3Department of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Yunnan, P.R. China; 4Department of Surgery and Pharmacology, Agriculture and Forestry University, Baharatpur-44200, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal.

*Correspondence | Zahir Shah, College of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture Peshawar-25130, Pakistan; Email: 


The present study was aimed to investigate the combined physico-chemical and analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) plus clonidine in goats. Thirty-six female goats were randomly allocated equally in six equal groups. The control group received 0.9% normal saline, 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were treated with 10, 15, and 20µg/kg of clonidine respectively, while 5th and 6th groups were treated with EA and EA plus 10µg/kg of clonidine, respectively. Pain threshold, cardio-respiratory effects, rectal temperature, hematological and biochemical variables were assessed in all groups. Clonidine at the dosage of 20µg/kg increased the pain threshold, and decreased cardio-respiratory rates and rectal temperature in goats. EA plus 10µg/kg of clonidine resulted higher pain threshold for 45-60 min than those goats treated with clonidine at 10 and 15µg/kg or EA alone but showed similar pain threshold with goats treated with 20µg/kg of clonidine. Goats treated with EA plus 10µg/kg clonidine showed moderately higher mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate up to 10-60min than those groups treated of clonidine. Moreover, a significantly lower serum glucose concentration was noted in EA plus 10µg/kg of clonidine treated goats at 15-60 min than those treated with clonidine alone. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine/aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematological variables for differently treated groups were insignificant. In conclusion, EA combined with a low dose of 10µg/kg of clonidine provided better analgesia in experimental animals.


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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 37, Iss. 1, Pages 1-330


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