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Effect of Bio-Priming, Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources and Beneficial Microorganisms on Growth and Biochemical Traits of Wheat

Effect of Bio-Priming, Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Sources and Beneficial Microorganisms on Growth and Biochemical Traits of Wheat

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

akbuneri@gmail.com  

ABSTRACT

Major sources of replenishing crop nutrients in soil are organic, inorganic and bio-fertilizers. The current experiments were conducted on “Effect of bio-priming, organic and inorganic nitrogen sources and beneficial microorganisms on growth and biochemical traits of wheat” for two years at Agricultural Research Station Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The experiments were laid out using three factors factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Bio-aab was used as a source of (BM) culture. Microbes present in this culture were species of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter spaeroides), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida utilis), actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griesus) and fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor heimalis). Farm yard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) were used as organic sources of nitrogen. Bio-primed (seeds soaked in 10% BM aqueous solution for 30 minutes just before sowing) and unprimed wheat seeds were tested under various nitrogen sources (NS) with and without BM. Nitrogen sources were NS1 (control), NS2 (full dose from Urea), NS3 (full dose from FYM), NS4 (full dose from PM), NS5 (half dose from Urea + half dose from FYM), NS6 (half dose from urea + half dose from PM) and NS7 (half dose from FYM + half dose from PM). Nitrogen @ 120 kg ha-1 was quantified from each combination except NS1. Seed bio-priming significantly increased emergence (9.6%), delayed heading (2.1%) and maturity (2.4%), increased leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (6.8 and 4.1%), increased LAI (9.6%), increased height (3.5%), enhanced crop growth rate (CGR) (8.6%) and increased chlorophyll a and b (9.8% and 8.5%). BM application significantly increased emergence (6.1%), delayed heading (2.3%) and maturity (3.04%), increased leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (9.1 and 14.1%), increased LAI (36.4%), increased height (8.65%), enhanced CGR (27.8%) and increased chlorophyll a and b (29% and 27.9%). Significantly earlier emergence (12 days), more leaves tiller-1 (4.9), delayed heading (114.6), greater leaf area tiller-1 (31.8 cm2), higher LAI (0.99), taller plants (89 cm), higher CGR (8.76 g m-2 day-1), delayed maturity (171 days) and more chlorophyll a and b (1.95 and 0.64 µg ml-1) were achieved while using NS6 as compared to other nitrogen sources. Significantly more leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (5.2 and 34.3 cm2), higher LAI (1.18), taller plants (93.8 cm), higher CGR (10.27 g m-2 day-1) and greater chlorophyll a and b (2.30 and 0.75 µg ml-1) were recorded while using NS6+BM as compared to same treatment without BM. Performance of the above-mentioned parameters were significantly higher during subsequent year of study. It is concluded that seed bio-priming and NS6+BM should be used for better performance of wheat. 

 

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 37, Iss. 2, Pages 331-713

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