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Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Pakistan: Perceptions, Options and Constraints

Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Pakistan: Perceptions, Options and Constraints

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

1COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Institute of Development Studies (IDS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 


Agriculture in Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation of the agriculture sector is imperative as it contributes 20 percent to the GDP and supports directly or indirectly about 68 percent of the population for their sustenance. Farmers’ perception about climate change, current adaptation measures, and decision-making process is important for farmers’ successful adaptation strategies. Using data of 205 conventional farmers from three district of Punjab province, this study provides insights into farmers’ perceptions about climate change, on-going adaptation practices, and constraints to various adaption strategies. We found that majority of the farmers do not consider climate change as a potential threat to agriculture; therefore, they do not make any intentional efforts to change their farming practices. However, a few adaptation measures like use of different crop varieties, tree planting, and drip irrigation methods are prevalent in the research area. The major hurdles that farmers perceived in adaptation are limited access to credit, lack of access to information, and institutional support. As expected, no significant variations were found across districts in the characteristics of respondents (age and income) that can affect their perceptions, their adaptation strategies, and obstacles faced in adaptation. The results of the study need to be interpreted with caution, as we did not focus on other determinants like education, role of media, and government policies that can affect farmers’ choices to adopt climate resilient farming practices.  


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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 37, Iss. 3, Pages 714-1097


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