Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Microbial Analysis of Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) Ejecta Collected from Two Public Parks in Lahore, Pakistan

Microbial Analysis of Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) Ejecta Collected from Two Public Parks in Lahore, Pakistan

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

1Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore

2Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad

3Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh

4Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College, a Chartered University, Lahore 

*           Corresponding author:



Microbial analysis of Indian flying fox, Pteropus giganteus ejecta roosting at Jinnah and Lalazar Gardens, Lahore was carried out from January, through December, 2011 and a total of twelve fungal and twelve bacterial genera were isolated. Four fungal (Candida, Fusarium, Penicillium and Saccharomyces) and two bacterial genera (Klebsiella and Nocardia) were isolated from bolus only, three fungal (Cryptococcus, Histoplasma and Trichophoton) and six bacterial (Acaligenes, Azotobacter, Bartonella, Nitrsomonas, Pseudomonas and Salmonella) genera were isolated from guano while five fungal (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chrysosporium, Exophilaand Scopulariopsis) and four bacterial (Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria and Streptomycete) genera were common in bolus and guano samples. Seasonal variations were recorded in occurrence of various fungal and bacterial genera. From bolus samples, two fungal Aspergillus and Fusarium and one bacterial Bacillus genera were recorded throughout the year while from guano Bacillus was the only genus with year round occurrence. Microbial analysis shows that Indian flying fox ejecta are an amalgam of beneficial and pathogenic microbes and its pH (6.7 to 7.4), high concentration of phosphorus (4.50% and 4.33%) and nitrogen (3.26% and 2.37%) favor seed germination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.


To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 4, Pages 1201-1601


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe