Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Optimization of Calcium and Phosphorous Ratio in the Pract ical Diet of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Optimization of Calcium and Phosphorous Ratio in the Pract ical Diet of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Sehrish Ishtiaq1, Mahroze Fatima1*, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Noor Khan3, Muhammad Bilal4, Maryam2 and Sobia Nisa1

1Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 
2Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan.
3Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
4School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, 223003, China
* Corresponding author:


An experiment of 90-days was performed to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and their interaction on growth, whole-body composition, nutrient digestibility and mineralization of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (average initial weight 13.7 ± 0.05 g). Nine isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic diets with three Ca levels (0, 1 and 2%) combined with three P levels (0, 1 and 2% P) were prepared. Results showed that silver carp fed the diet supplemented with 1% Ca and 1% P level yielded the similar (p > 0.05) growth performance as was recorded for that fed diet containing 2% Ca and 2% P. No significant difference in survival rate was recorded except for the diet containing 1% Ca with 2% P supplement. The feed intake (FI) of juvenile remained unaffected (p > 0.05) by mineral supplementation. Whole body protein content increased (p < 0.05) slightly with Ca and P supplementation. However, moisture, fat and ash contents remained unaffected (p > 0.05). Dietary Ca and P supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the protein and fat digestibility in silver carp. Ca and P contents showed significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing Ca and P levels in the whole body, bones and scales, achieving the highest (p < 0.05) values at 2% Ca supplemented with 2% P. Whereas, Mg and Zn contents decreased (p < 0.05) with increasing Ca and P supplementation. Fish fed the diet containing 2% Ca level without P supplement had higher (p < 0.05) Ca/P ratio in whole body and bones. However, it decreased (p < 0.05) at 2% Ca level in scales. Further, increase in P supplementation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) Ca/P ratio regardless of Ca level. Conclusively, supplementation of 1% Ca in the presence of 1% P (1:1 ratio) is required for optimum performance of silver carp.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 55, Iss. 6, pp. 2501-3000


Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits

Subscribe Unsubscribe