The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4
Zika virus infection (ZIKVI) have been known for years in Africa but data on sero-epidemiology among vulnerable pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to describe the seroprevalence of ZIKVI and associated factors in Jos, North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was performed at Plateau State Specialist Hospital in Jos, North Central Nigeria from August to December 2020. We enrolled a total of 90 (45 HIV positive and 45 HIV negative) pregnant women aged ≥18 and ≤50 years attending antenatal clinic. Ethical approval was obtained and approved by the Health Research Ethics Committee of the hospital. Detection of ZIKV IgG antibodies was done using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to qualitatively analyze Human Zika virus IgG (ZV-IgG) in human serum. A total of 90 pregnant women was recruited, and the overall seroprevalence was (14.4%) for Zika virus (20.0% HIV positive and 8.9% negative) IgG antibodies. A significant association was found with age category among the HIV negative pregnant women p=0.012, and in the history of blood transfusion among the HIV positive participants, p=0.013. No association with educational level, employment, marital and resident, gestational trimester, fever, yellow fever vaccination, rashes and parity was found for anti-ZIKV IgG positivity in the groups. Our results showed high seroprevalence among the pregnant women, an indication that the ZIKV antigen that triggered the antibodies response is in circulation, therefore, suggest the need for ZIKV surveillance and larger study on specific IgM antibodies in Nigeria.