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Detection and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Beef and Mutton Consumed in Gaza, Palestine

Detection and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Beef and Mutton Consumed in Gaza, Palestine

Zuhair Dardona1,2, Adnan Al-Hindi3, Mohamed Hafidi1, Ali Boumezzough1 and Samia Boussaa1,4*

1Microbial Biotechnologies, Agrosciences and Environment (Labelled Research Unit N°4, CNRST), Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco.
2Governmental Medical Services, Gaza, Palestine.
3Faculty of Health Sciences, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine. P. O. Box 108, Gaza Strip, Palestine.
4ISPITS-Higher Institute of Nursing and Health Techniques, Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Rabat, Morocco.
* Corresponding author:


Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted by a variety of routes, including the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat. It infects roughly one-third of the world’s population and is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. The goal of this research is to detect the existence and genotypes of T. gondii in beef and mutton, two of the most widely consumed red meats in Gaza, Palestine, using both ELISA and PCR techniques. For this purpose, 60 red meat samples were collected from butcheries in Gaza city, during the period from January to March 2021. These samples were divided evenly between beef and mutton. This study found that beef is devoid of T. gondii, whether tested using ELISA or PCR. On the contrary, both approaches detected T. gondii in mutton; however, the percentage of positive samples reported differed. For example, whereas T. gondii was detected in 14 (46.66 %) of 30 samples using ELISA, only 5 (16.66 %) of positive samples were detected using PCR. The genotyping results of the current investigation showed that the three DNA isolates were T. gondii type II. A Chi-square test was also implemented to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii and the type of red meat samples (mutton and beef) examined using PCR and ELISA. Similarly, in the detection of T. gondii, a comparison of the PCR approach and ELISA was conducted, and all of these relationships were shown to be statistically significant, with p  values < 0.05. Meanwhile, this investigation found that beef samples were devoid of T. gondii infection. Regardless of whether it was examined with an ELISA or a PCR, this study revealed the occurrence of T. gondii in mutton. The current study also concluded that eating raw or undercooked mutton is a potential risk factor for the transmission of T. gondii infection to humans. Besides, the occurrence of T. gondii type II in the three genotyped ADNA isolates.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 3, pp. 1001-1500


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