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Geostatistical Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Variability and Mapping Genus Bactrocera in Apricot Orchard in Northern Pakistan

Geostatistical Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Variability and Mapping Genus Bactrocera in Apricot Orchard in Northern Pakistan

Wasim Akram1, Azhar Hussain2*, Sartaj Ali2, Iqbal Hussain3 and Muhammad2

1Department of Plant Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
2Department of Agriculture and Food Technology, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
3Directorate of Agriculture Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
 
* Corresponding author: azhar.hussain@kiu.edu.pk, wasimhortikiu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Apricots are the most important cash fruit in the region, and they play a key role in its socio-economic development. It is, however, susceptible to several diseases and pests, resulting in decreased yields and substantial financial losses. One of them is the genus Bactrocera, which has almost no data on its Spatio-temporal variability. Between July and September 2021 in district Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, this study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal variability of two species of fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis, in apricot fruit orchards. Results revealed that there was a significant difference between the species and month to month. B. zonata had a substantially larger population than B. dorsalis. To predict the spatial variability of fruit fly species, geostatistical analytic techniques were used. Using an inverse distance weight with a spherical semivariogram model, the spatial distribution maps were created. Both species had nugget/sill ratios of 0.00, 0.69, 0.61, and 0.73, indicating moderate to strong spatial dependence. The semivariogram graph also displayed moderate to high spatial dependence. The east-west and south-north trend lines of both fruit fly species crossed through the projected area of the sample point, indicating the overall variation trend of B. zonata and B. dorsalis. Interpolated distribution maps were also created to represent the spatial distribution of B. zonata and B. dorsalis in the study using different colors. This data, together with meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), seems to promote a high population of fruit fly species in July and August. This knowledge will help with the development of integrated pest management strategies for fruit fly species and the reduction of insecticide use, which will benefit both growers and the environment.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 55, Iss. 1, Pages 1-500

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