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In vitro Acaricidal and Repellent Effects of Amomum subulatum Essential Oil Against Hyalomma Ticks

In vitro Acaricidal and Repellent Effects of Amomum subulatum Essential Oil Against Hyalomma Ticks

Arslan Muhammad Ali Khan1, Rao Zahid Abbas1*, Zia ud Din Sindhu1, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood2

1Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.
2Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.
 
Corresponding Author: Rao Zahid Abbas
raouaf@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

The experiments were conducted to assess the acaricidal and repellent activities of Amomum subulatum (A. subulatum) (Black cardamom) essential oil against Hyalomma ticks in bovines. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was performed to identify the chemical components of A. subulatum essential oil. The acaricidal and repellent activities of the A. subulatum essential oil against Hyalomma spp. were observed via adult immersion test (AIT), the larval immersion test (LIT), egg hatchability test (EHT), and the tick repellency assay. GC-FID provided that the main compounds of A. subulatum essential oil were monoterpenoids (limonene and α-terpinene, and α-terpineol) (33.8%) while other chemical compounds were α-terpinolene (9.5%), sabinene (9.3%), 1- Carveol (8.9%), α-phellandrene (7.8%), linalool (4.7%), myrtenol (4.7%), nerolidol (4.6%), β-pinene (4.6%), terphenyl acetate (3.6%), 1, 8-cineole (2.7%), and traces (1.7%). Five different concentrations of A. subulatum essential oil (0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.50, and 5% v/v) along with positive (0.1% Cypermethrin) and negative control (absolute alcohol) were prepared to check the acaricidal and repellent effects. A. subulatum essential oil significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the rates of mortality in a dose-dependent manner of adult and larvae of Hyalomma spp. Egg number, egg mass, and larval hatching were also reduced significantly (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, reproductive index (RI), reproductive efficiency index (REI), and nutrient index (NI) were also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, A. subulatum essential oil showed dose-dependent response against repellency of Hyalomma spp. The LC50 and LC90, RC50 and RC90 values for A. subulatum essential oil were also calculated. Excellent larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent outcomes of A. subulatum essential oil against Hyalomma ticks were achieved.
 
Novelty Statement | This is the first time used Amomum subulatum essential oil against Hyalomma ticks and result indicates that A. subulatum essential oil is a potential approach for either eliminating or suppressing Hyalomma ticks’ infestation.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

April

Pakistan J. Zool., Vol. 56, Iss. 2, pp. 503-1000

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