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Xylazine and Lidocaine: Uses of High Epidural Anesthesia in the Domesticated Small Animals

Xylazine and Lidocaine: Uses of High Epidural Anesthesia in the Domesticated Small Animals

Muhammad Yousif Jakhrai1, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio2, Ali Mujtaba Shah1*, Tarique Ahmed Khokhar1, Muhammad Mohsen Rahimoon1

1Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan
2Department of Surgery and Obstetrics, Faculty of animal husbandry and veterinary science, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan


The current study was conducted to investigate the recent literature concerning latest achievements in the high epidural anesthetic technique and high epidural anesthetic drugs injected to induce epidural analgesia in small ruminants like caprine and ovine. The information was obtained from published papers of last twenty years via research gateways such as; PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Small ruminant anesthesia, local anesthesia in ruminants and high epidural analgesia in sheep and goats were key points for this review. However, these research papers were included in this study, were published between from 1999 to 2017. The bibliographies of these references were also used for reviewing the High epidural anesthesia in small animals. However, a total of 29 articles were reviewed for this study. The scope of lumbosacral epidural analgesia and also its clinical application was studied. The most commonly anesthetic agents injected to produce high epidural analgesia in ovine and caprine species were 2% lidocaine and xylazine were included in this study. This study showed that administration of xylazine in high epidural anesthesia produce a significant analgesic and sedative effect for laparotomy (peritoneal) surgical interventions in ovine and caprine species as compared to lidocaine. 
Novelty Statement | This comprehensive review will be very helpful to reduce anesthetic risk by using high epidural analgesia in small ruminants for hindquarter surgical procedures like hysterotomy, celiotomy, rumenotomy, repair of prolapse (vigina, rectum and uterus) hernia and other abdominal affections.

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Punjab University Journal of Zoology


Vol. 36, Iss. 1, pp. 1-123


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